Document
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
(Mark One)
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017
 or
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from              to             
COMMISSION FILE NO. 0-26224
 
INTEGRA LIFESCIENCES HOLDINGS CORPORATION
(EXACT NAME OF REGISTRANT AS SPECIFIED IN ITS CHARTER)
 
DELAWARE
 
51-0317849
(STATE OR OTHER JURISDICTION OF
INCORPORATION OR ORGANIZATION)
 
(I.R.S. EMPLOYER
IDENTIFICATION NO.)
 
 
311 ENTERPRISE DRIVE
PLAINSBORO, NEW JERSEY
 
08536
(ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL EXECUTIVE OFFICES)
 
(ZIP CODE)
REGISTRANT’S TELEPHONE NUMBER, INCLUDING AREA CODE: (609) 275-0500
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, Par Value $.01 Per Share
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT:
NONE  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act. Yes  o
 No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.   o
    

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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
Large accelerated filer
x
Accelerated filer
o
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
o  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
o
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
o
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  o    No  ý
As of June 30, 2017, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $3,415.7 million based upon the closing sales price of the registrant’s common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market on such date. The number of shares of the registrant’s Common Stock, $0.01 par value, outstanding as of February 27, 2018 was 78,494,242.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
Certain portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to its scheduled May 17, 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III of this report.



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INTEGRA LIFESCIENCES HOLDINGS CORPORATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS 
 
Page
 
 
 
           Item 1. Business
           Item 1A. Risk Factors
           Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
           Item 2. Properties
           Item 3. Legal Proceedings
           Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
 
 
 
            Item 6. Selected Financial Data
            Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
            Item 9B. Other Information
 
 
 
            Item 11. Executive Compensation
 
 
 
            Item 16. Form 10-K Summary
 
 
 
 


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PART I
 
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
OVERVIEW
The terms “we,” “our,” “us,” “Company” and “Integra” refer to Integra LifeSciences Holdings Corporation, a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries, unless the context suggests otherwise.
Integra, headquartered in Plainsboro, New Jersey, is a world leader in medical technology. The Company was founded in 1989 with the acquisition of an engineered collagen technology platform used to repair and regenerate tissue. Since then, Integra has developed numerous product lines from this technology for applications ranging from burn and deep tissue wounds to repair of dura mater in the brain to repair of nerve and tendon. The Company has expanded its base regenerative technology business to include surgical instruments, neurosurgical products, advanced wound care and orthopedic hardware, through several global acquisitions and by developing products internally to further meet the needs of its customers.
Integra employs approximately 4,400 people dedicated to limiting uncertainty for surgeons, so that they can concentrate on providing the best care for their patients. Integra provides innovative healthcare solutions in more than 130 countries through its nearly 50 offices and its worldwide distribution network.
VISION
We aspire to be a multi-billion dollar diversified global medical technology company that helps patients by limiting uncertainty for healthcare professionals. Our customers will recognize us as a leader in specialty surgical applications, regenerative technologies and extremities orthopedics worldwide.
STRATEGY
Integra is committed to delivering high quality products that positively impact the lives of millions of patients and their families. In 2017, we evolved our strategy to focus on four key pillars: 1) building an execution-focused culture, 2) achieving relevant scale, 3) improving agility and innovation, and 4) leading in customer excellence. We believe that by sharpening our focus on these areas through improved planning and communication, optimization of our infrastructure, and strategically aligned tuck-in acquisitions, we can build scale, increase competitiveness and achieve our long-term goals.
To this end, our executive leadership team has established the following key priorities aligned to this strategy:
Strategic Acquisitions. An important part of our strategy is pursuing strategic transactions and licensing agreements that increase relevant scale in the clinical areas in which we compete. In 2017, we closed the acquisitions of the Codman Neurosurgery business of Johnson & Johnson ("Codman Neurosurgery") and Derma Sciences, Inc. ("Derma Sciences"). Derma Sciences strengthens our leadership position in the advanced wound care segment. Its portfolio of amniotic and placental tissue products complement and enhance our portfolio of regenerative technologies. The Codman Neurosurgery acquisition expands our portfolio of neurosurgery products and establishes us as the world leader in neurosurgery. This acquisition also increased our international footprint, which will enable us to bring our entire portfolio of Integra products to local markets. Heading into 2018, integrating these businesses will remain a top priority.
Portfolio Optimization and New Product Introductions. We are investing in innovative product development to drive a multi-generational pipeline for our key product franchises. Our product development efforts focus on regenerative technologies and other projects with the potential for significant returns on investment. In 2017, we achieved significant milestones in research and development by successfully launching seven regenerative products and our largest electromechanical product, the CUSA® Clarity. In addition to new product development, we are funding studies to gather clinical evidence to support launches, ensure market access and improve reimbursement for existing products. We also continue to identify low-growth, low-margin products and product franchises for discontinuation and will continue to look at other ways of optimizing our portfolio.
Commercial Channel Investments. With acquisitions, new product introductions and a broader portfolio of products, we have made investments in our sales channels to create specialization and greater focus on reaching our customers and addressing their needs. Internationally, we have increased our commercial resources significantly in all markets and are making investments to support our sales organization and maximize our commercial opportunities. We now have a strong international sales channel that will deliver our current portfolio as well as position us for expansion. In addition, we continue to build upon our leadership brands across our product franchises to enable us to engage hospital systems through enterprise-wide contracts.
Customer Excellence. We aspire to be ranked as a best-in-class provider and are committed to strengthen our relationships with all customers. We strive to consistently deliver outstanding customer service and continue to invest in technologies,

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systems and processes to improve the way our customers do business with us. Additionally, we expect to build on the success of our professional education programs to drive continued customer appreciation of our growing portfolio of medical technologies globally.
BUSINESS SEGMENTS
We currently manufacture and sell our products in the following two global reportable business segments: Codman Specialty Surgical and Orthopedics and Tissue Technologies. We include financial information regarding our reportable business segments and certain geographic information under "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and in Note 15, Segment and Geographic Information to our consolidated financial statements.
Codman Specialty Surgical
Our Codman Specialty Surgical business, previously known as Specialty Surgical Solutions, offers global, market-leading technologies, brands and instrumentation. The product portfolio represents a continuum of care from pre-operative, to the neurosurgery operating room, to the neuro-critical care unit and post care for both adult and pediatric patients suffering from brain tumors, brain injury, cerebrospinal fluid pressure complications and other neurological conditions.
The acquisition of Codman Neurosurgery from Johnson & Johnson increased our global direct sales representation and international presence. This acquisition expanded the product portfolio of our world-renowned technologies in dural repair, ultrasonic tissue ablation, intracranial cranial pressure ("ICP") monitoring, hydrocephalus management, and cranial stabilization systems, while providing a rich research and development pipeline for growth.
Rounding out the portfolio is a catalog of surgical headlamps, surgical instrumentation, as well as asset management software and support, and after-market service. With thousands of surgical instrument products, including specialty surgical instruments, we call on the central sterile processing unit of hospitals and acute care surgical centers. Additionally, through a strong U.S. distribution model, we can serve the needs of hundreds of physicians, dental and veterinary offices.
Our global commercial network includes clinical specialists, a large direct global sales force and strategic partnerships and distributors that serve hospitals, integrated health networks, group purchasing organizations, clinicians, surgery centers and health care providers in North America, South America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa.
Orthopedics and Tissue Technologies

Orthopedics and Tissue Technologies products serve some of the fastest growing markets in the medical technology industry and provide solutions that primarily address the needs of orthopedic, plastic, reconstructive and general surgeons. These products focus on addressing soft tissue, nerve, and tendon repairs as well as reconstruction in the hand, wrist, elbow, shoulder, ankle and foot.
We sell regenerative technology products that can be used to provide treatment for acute wounds, such as burns, chronic wounds, including diabetic foot ulcers, surgical tissue repair including hernia repair, peripheral nerve repair and protection, and tendon repair. For extremity bone and joint reconstruction procedures, we sell hardware products, such as bone and joint fixation and joint replacement devices, implants and instruments, which provide for the orthopedic reconstruction of bone in the hand, wrist, elbow and shoulder (Upper Extremity), and the foot, ankle and leg below the knee (Lower Extremity).
The acquisition of Derma Sciences in 2017 gives us relevant scale in outpatient wound care, doubling our sales force in the United States (the "U.S."), and broadening our base of business with advanced products such as Medihoney®, weight offloading, and amniotic tissue. It also creates opportunities to further expand our presence in the plastic and reconstructive surgery segments.
We have made significant investments over the last two years with our channel expansion in the U.S. and created four dedicated sales channels to have more focus and specialization within our call points to drive sustainable growth. We have a specialized sales organization composed of directly employed sales representatives, as well as specialty distributors, organized based upon their call point. Our extremity orthopedics sales representatives call on surgeons who treat extremity orthopedic disorders, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, wrist, ankle and shoulder arthroplasty, and other conditions requiring foot or hand reconstruction. In addition, we sell our shoulder products through a specialty distributor network of sales agents who call on shoulder surgeons. Our wound reconstruction acute (inpatient) sales representatives call on surgeons doing procedures in limb salvage, trauma, wound reconstruction and burns, while our advanced wound care sales representatives call on physicians who treat chronic wounds in the outpatient wound care clinic setting. We also have a dedicated surgical reconstruction sales team focused on plastic and reconstructive surgery and hernia procedures with differentiated products. Finally, we have a distributor network focused on biologics.
Outside the U.S., we have a small direct sales presence, primarily in certain European countries, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada, and use distributors in other international markets to sell certain product lines.


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This business segment also includes private-label sales of a broad set of our regenerative and wound care technologies. Our customers are other medical technology companies that sell to end markets primarily in orthopedics, spine, surgical and wound care.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
Our research and development activities focus on identifying unmet surgical needs and addressing those needs with innovative solutions and products. We apply our core competency in regenerative technology to products for neurosurgical, orthopedic and wound applications, and we have extensive programs for our core platforms of orthopedic hardware and electromechanical technologies. We are focusing our research and development efforts on products and clinical studies to generate efficacy and health economic evidence.
Regenerative Technologies. Integra was the first and only company to receive a United States Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") claim for regeneration of dermal tissue and is a world leader in regenerative technology. Because regenerative technology products represent a fast-growing, high-margin opportunity for us, we allocate a large portion of our research and development budget to these projects. Our regenerative technology development program applies our expertise in bioengineering to a range of biomaterials including natural collagen and human tissues as well as synthetics such as polymers. These unique product designs are used for neurosurgical and orthopedic surgical applications, as well as dermal regeneration, including the healing of chronic and acute wounds, tendon and nerve repair. Our regenerative technology platform includes our legacy Integra® Dermal Regeneration Template (IDRT) products and complementary technologies that we have acquired over the last few years. Our collagen manufacturing capability, combined with our history of innovation, provides us with strong platform technologies for multiple indications. In 2017, we introduced seven new regenerative technology products, including new sizes of PriMatrix® and Omnigraft®.
Orthopedic Reconstruction. We develop fixation and small joint reconstruction implants and instruments for upper and lower extremities to both provide next generation solutions and expand our product portfolio. This portfolio focuses on joint replacement products. Integra already has a strong shoulder portfolio, which includes a total shoulder system and a reverse shoulder. We continue to work on advanced shoulder products and are developing next generation anatomical designs and bone preserving techniques and a pyrocarbon hemi-shoulder product to add to that portfolio. We have a strong differentiated asset that resides in our exclusively licensed pyrocarbon products, and we continue to invest to bring new products to market with this technology, which has shown significantly less wear on bone than traditional metals. In 2017, we launched non-randomized, prospective, multi-center post-market studies in the U.S., Europe and Canada to evaluate 2-year implant survivorship in subjects who received the Cadence® Total Ankle System for primary ankle arthroplasty. We will further evaluate implant survivorship at 5 and 10 years post-operatively.
Electromechanical Technologies and Instrumentation. Because our electromechanical products and instruments address significant needs in surgical procedures and limit uncertainty for surgeons, we continue to invest in approvals for new indications and next generation improvements to our market-leading products. We have several active programs focused on life cycle management and innovation, for capital and disposable products in our portfolio. Our product development efforts are focused on core clinical applications in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) management, neuro-critical care (NCC) monitoring, electrosurgery and ultrasonic medical technologies. We also work with several instrument partners to bring new surgical instrument patterns to the market, enabling us to add new instruments with minimal expense. Finally, our lighting franchise is among the most dynamic in the industry, and we continue to invest in ongoing development in LED technology.
COMPETITION
Our competitors for Codman Specialty Surgical are the Aesculap division of B. Braun Medical, Inc., Medtronic, Inc., Stryker Corporation and Becton, Dickinson and Company. In addition, we compete with many smaller specialized companies and larger companies that do not otherwise focus on the offerings that Codman Specialty Surgical technologies does. We rely on the depth and breadth of our sales and marketing organization, our innovative technology, and our procurement and manufacturing operations to maintain our competitive position.
Our competition in Orthopedics and Tissue Technologies includes the DePuy/Synthes business of Johnson & Johnson, Stryker Corporation, Wright Medical Group, N.V., Smith & Nephew plc, MiMedx Group, Inc., LifeCell Corporation, a subsidiary of Allergan PLC, and Zimmer Biomet Holdings, Inc., as well as other major orthopedic companies that carry a full line of small bone and joint fixation and soft tissue products.
Finally, in certain cases our products compete primarily against medical practices that treat a condition without using a medical device or any particular product, such as medical practices that utilize autograft tissue instead of our dermal regeneration products,

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duraplasty products and nerve repair products. Depending on the product line, we compete on the basis of our products' features, strength of our sales force or distributors, sophistication of our technology and cost effectiveness of our solution.

GOVERNMENT REGULATION
We are a manufacturer and marketer of medical devices, and therefore are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA, the Center for Medicare Services of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, other federal governmental agencies and, in some jurisdictions, by state and foreign governmental authorities. These regulations govern the introduction of new medical devices, the observance of certain standards with respect to the design, manufacture, testing, labeling, promotion and sales of the devices, the maintenance of certain records, the ability to track devices, the reporting of potential product defects, the import and export of devices, and other matters.

United States Food and Drug Administration
Prior to Integra's acquisition of it, TEI Biosciences Inc. received a Warning Letter from the FDA dated May 29, 2015 for promoting the product SurgiMend for breast surgery applications that were not cleared in the 510(k) process and do not have a PMA Approval for the indication. The FDA requested that TEI Biosciences Inc. immediately cease all activities that resulted in misbranding or adulteration of the product in commercial distribution. The FDA also required TEI Biosciences Inc. to cease all violations regarding promotion of the product for an indication that it was not cleared or approved for. TEI Biosciences Inc. responded with a corrective action plan to the FDA and took action to address the issues prior to the completion of the acquisition. The FDA agreed with the corrective action plan and cleared the Warning Letter on August 31, 2017.
The regulatory process for obtaining product approvals and clearances can be onerous and costly. The FDA requires, as a condition to marketing a medical device in the U.S., that we secure a Premarket Notification clearance pursuant to Section 510(k) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (the “FD&C Act”) or an approved PMA application (or supplemental PMA application). Obtaining these approvals and clearances can take up to several years and may involve preclinical studies and clinical trials. The FDA also may require a post-approval clinical study as a condition of approval. To perform clinical trials for significant risk devices in the U.S. on an unapproved product, we are required to obtain an Investigational Device Exemption ("IDE") from the FDA. The FDA may also require a filing for approval prior to marketing products that are modifications of existing products or new indications for existing products. Moreover, after clearance/approval is given, if the product is shown to be hazardous or defective, the FDA and foreign regulatory agencies have the power to withdraw the clearance or approval, as the case may be, or require us to change the device, its manufacturing process or its labeling, to supply additional proof of its safety and effectiveness or to recall, repair, replace or refund the cost of the medical device. Because we currently export medical devices manufactured in the U.S. that have not been approved by the FDA for distribution in the U.S., we are required to obtain approval/registration in the country to which we are exporting and maintain certain records relating to exports and make these available to the FDA for inspection, if required.
Human Cells, Tissues and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products
Integra, through the acquisition of Derma Sciences and BioD LLC ("BioD") is involved with the recovery, processing, storage, transportation and distribution of donated amniotic tissue. The FDA has specific regulations governing human cells, tissues and cellular and tissue-based products, or HCT/Ps. An HCT/P is a product containing, or consisting of, human cells or tissue intended for transplantation into a human patient. Examples include bone, ligament, skin and cornea.
Some HCT/Ps fall within the definition of a biological product, medical device or drug regulated under the FD&C Act. These biologic, device or drug HCT/Ps must comply both with the requirements exclusively applicable to HCT/Ps and, in addition, with requirements applicable to biologics, devices or drugs, including premarket clearance or approval from the FDA.
Section 361 of the Public Health Service Act (“Section 361”), authorizes the FDA to issue regulations to prevent the introduction, transmission or spread of communicable disease. HCT/Ps regulated as “361” HCT/Ps are subject to requirements relating to registering facilities and listing products with the FDA, screening and testing for tissue donor eligibility, and Good Tissue Practice when processing, storing, labeling, and distributing HCT/Ps, including required labeling information, stringent record keeping, and adverse event reporting.
The American Association of Tissue Banks (“AATB”) has issued operating standards for tissue banking. Compliance with these standards is a requirement in order to become an AATB-accredited tissue establishment. In addition, some states have their own tissue banking regulations. We are licensed or have permits for tissue banking in California, Florida, New York and Maryland.
National Organ Transplant Act. Procurement of certain human organs and tissue for transplantation is subject to the restrictions of the National Organ Transplant Act, which prohibits the transfer of certain human organs, including skin and related tissue for valuable consideration, but permits the reasonable payment associated with the removal, transportation, implantation, processing, preservation, quality control and storage of human tissue and skin. Our subsidiary, BioD LLC is a registered Tissue Bank and is involved with the recovery, storage and transportation of donated human amniotic tissue.

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Amniotic tissue is considered an HCT/P. However, on June 22, 2015, the FDA issued an Untitled Letter alleging that BioD’s morselized amniotic membrane tissue based products do not meet the criteria for regulation as HCT/Ps solely under Section 361 and that, as a result, BioD would need a biologics license to lawfully market those morselized products. Since the issuance of the Untitled Letter, BioD and more recently the Company have been in discussions with the FDA to communicate their disagreement with the FDA’s assertion that certain products are more than minimally manipulated. The FDA has not changed its position that certain of the BioD acquired products are not eligible for marketing solely under Section 361. In November 2017, the FDA issued the final guidance document related to human tissue titled, “Regulatory Considerations for Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products: Minimal Manipulation and Homologous Use” (the “HCT/P Final Guidance”). The HCT/P Final Guidance maintains the FDA’s position that products such as the Company’s morselized amniotic membrane tissue based products do not meet the criteria for regulation solely as HCT/Ps. In addition, the FDA articulated a risk-based approach to enforcement and, while some uses for amniotic membrane tissue based products would enjoy as much as thirty-six months of enforcement discretion, other high risk uses could be subject to immediate enforcement action. The Company does not believe the uses for its amniotic membrane tissue based products fall into the high risk category. Revenues from BioD morselized amniotic membrane based products for the year ended December 31, 2017 were less than 1.0% of consolidated revenues. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors — Certain of our products are derived from human tissue and are subject to additional regulations and requirements.

Medical Device Regulations

We also are required to register with the FDA as a medical device manufacturer. As such, our manufacturing sites are subject to periodic inspection by the FDA for compliance with the FDA's Quality System Regulations. These regulations require that we manufacture our products and maintain our documents in a prescribed manner with respect to design, manufacturing, testing and control activities. Further, we are required to comply with various FDA requirements and other legal requirements for labeling and promotion. If the FDA believes that a company is not in compliance with applicable regulations, it may issue a warning letter, institute proceedings to detain or seize products, issue a recall order, impose operating restrictions, enjoin future violations and assess civil penalties against that company, its officers or its employees and may recommend criminal prosecution to the U.S. Department of Justice.
Medical device regulations also are in effect in many of the countries in which we do business outside the U.S. These laws range from comprehensive medical device approval and Quality System requirements for some or all of our medical device products to simpler requests for product data or certifications. The number and scope of these requirements are increasing. Under the European Union Medical Device Directive, medical devices must meet the Medical Device Directive standards and receive CE Mark Certification prior to marketing in the European Union (the “EU”). CE Mark Certification requires a comprehensive quality system program, technical documentation and data on the product, which are then reviewed by a Notified Body. A Notified Body is an organization designated by the national governments of the EU member states to make independent judgments about whether a product complies with the requirements established by each CE marking directive. The Medical Device Directive, ISO 9000 series and ISO 13485 are recognized international quality standards that are designed to ensure that we develop and manufacture quality medical devices. Other countries are also instituting regulations regarding medical devices or interpreting and enforcing existing regulations more strictly. Compliance with these regulations requires extensive documentation and clinical reports for all of our products, revisions to labeling, and other requirements such as facility inspections to comply with the registration requirements. A recognized Notified Body audits our facilities annually to verify our compliance with the ISO 13485 Quality System standard.
Certain countries, as well as the EU, have issued regulations that govern products that contain materials derived from animal sources. Regulatory authorities are particularly concerned with materials infected with the agent that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“BSE”), otherwise known as mad cow disease. These regulations affect our dermal regeneration products, duraplasty products, hernia repair products, biomaterial products for the spine, nerve and tendon repair products and certain other products, all of which contain material derived from bovine tissue. Although we take great care to provide that our products are safe and free of agents that can cause disease, products that contain materials derived from animals, including our products, may become subject to additional regulation, or even be banned in certain countries, because of concern over the potential for prior transmission. Significant new regulations, a ban of our products, or a movement away from bovine-derived products because of an outbreak of BSE could have a material, adverse effect on our current business or our ability to expand our business. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors - Certain of our products contain materials derived from animal sources and may become subject to additional regulation.”
Postmarket Requirements. After a device is cleared or approved for commercial distribution, numerous regulatory requirements apply. These include the FDA Quality System Regulations which cover the procedures and documentation of the design, testing, production, control, quality assurance, labeling, packaging, sterilization, storage and shipping of medical devices; the FDA's general prohibition against promoting products for unapproved or 'off-label' uses; the Medical Device Reporting regulation, which requires that manufacturers report to the FDA if their device may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or malfunctioned in a way that would likely cause or contribute to a death or serious injury if it were to recur; and the Reports of

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Corrections and Removals regulation, which require manufacturers to report recalls and field corrective actions to the FDA if initiated to reduce a risk to health posed by the device or to remedy a violation of the FD&C Act.
Other regulations
Anti-Bribery Laws. In the U.S., we are subject to laws and regulations pertaining to healthcare fraud and abuse, including anti-kickback laws and physician self-referral laws that regulate the means by which companies in the health care industry may market their products to hospitals and health care professionals and may compete by discounting the prices of their products. Similar anti-bribery laws exist in many of the countries in which we sell our products outside the U.S., as well as the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (which addresses the activities of U.S. companies in foreign markets). Our products also are subject to regulation regarding reimbursement, and U.S. healthcare laws apply when a customer submits a claim for a product that is reimbursed under a federally funded healthcare program. These global laws require that we exercise care in designing our sales and marketing practices, including involving interactions with healthcare professionals, and customer discount arrangements. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors - Oversight of the medical device industry might affect the manner in which we may sell medical devices and compete in the marketplace.”
 
Import-export. Our international operations subject us to laws regarding sanctioned countries, entities and persons, customs, and import-export. Among other things, these laws restrict, and in some cases can prevent, U.S. companies from directly or indirectly selling goods, technology or services to people or entities in certain countries. In addition, these laws require that we exercise care in our business dealings with entities in and from foreign countries.
Hazardous materials. Our research, development and manufacturing processes involve the controlled use of certain hazardous materials. We are subject to country-specific, federal, state and local laws and regulations governing the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of these materials and certain waste products. We believe that our environmental, health and safety procedures for handling and disposing of these materials comply with the standards prescribed by the controlling laws and regulations. However, risk of accidental releases or injury from these materials is possible. These risks are managed to minimize or eliminate associated business impacts. In the event of this type of accident, we could be held liable for damages that may result, and any liability could exceed our resources. We could be subject to a regulatory shutdown of a facility that could prevent the distribution and sale of products manufactured there for a significant period of time, and we could suffer a casualty loss that could require a shutdown of the facility in order to repair it, any of which could have a material, adverse effect on our business. Although we continuously strive to maintain full compliance with respect to all applicable global environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could incur substantial costs to fully comply with future laws and regulations, and our operations, business or assets may be negatively affected. Furthermore, global environmental, health and safety compliance is an ongoing process. Integra has compliance procedures in place for compliance with Employee Health & Safety laws, driven by a centrally led organizational structure that ensures proper implementation, which is essential to our overall business objectives.
In addition to the above regulations, we are, and may be, subject to regulation under country-specific federal and state laws, including, but not limited to, requirements regarding record keeping, and the maintenance of personal information, including personal health information. As a public company, we are subject to the securities laws and regulations, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. We also are subject to other present, and could be subject to possible future, local, state, federal and foreign regulations.
Third-Party Reimbursement. Healthcare providers that purchase medical devices generally rely on third-party payors, including, in the U.S., the Medicare and Medicaid programs and private payors, such as indemnity insurers, employer group health insurance programs and managed care plans, to reimburse all or part of the cost of the products. As a result, demand for our products is and will continue to be dependent in part on the coverage and reimbursement policies of these payors. The manner in which reimbursement is sought and obtained varies based upon the type of payor involved and the setting in which the product is furnished and utilized. Reimbursement from Medicare, Medicaid and other third-party payors may be subject to periodic adjustments as a result of legislative, regulatory and policy changes, as well as budgetary pressures. Possible reductions in, or eliminations of, coverage or reimbursement by third-party payors, or denial of, or provision of uneconomical reimbursement for new products may affect our customers' revenue and ability to purchase our products. Any changes in the healthcare regulatory, payment or enforcement landscape relative to our customers' healthcare services have the potential to significantly affect our operations and revenue.
Data Privacy and Cybersecurity Laws and Regulations. As a business with a significant global footprint, compliance with evolving regulations and standards in data privacy and cybersecurity (relating to the confidentiality and security of our information technology systems, products such as medical devices, and other services provided by us) may result in increased costs, lower revenue, new complexities in compliance, new challenges for competition, and the threat of increased regulatory enforcement activity. Our business relies on the secure electronic transmission, storage and hosting of sensitive information, including personal information, financial information, intellectual property, and other sensitive information related to our customers and workforce.

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For example, in the U.S. the collection, maintenance, protection, use, transmission, disclosure and disposal of certain personal information and the security of medical devices are regulated at the U.S. federal and state, and industry levels. U.S. federal and state laws protect the confidentiality of certain patient health information, including patient medical records, and restrict the use and disclosure of patient health information by health care providers. In addition, the FDA has issued guidance advising manufacturers to take cybersecurity risks into account in product design for connected medical devices and systems, to assure that appropriate safeguards are in place to reduce the risk of unauthorized access or modification to medical devices that contain software and reduce the risk of introducing threats into hospital systems that are connected to such devices. The FDA also issued guidance on post market management of cyber security in medical devices.
Outside the U.S., we are impacted by the privacy and data security requirements at the international, national and regional level, and on an industry specific basis. Legal requirements in these countries relating to the collection, storage, handling and transfer of personal data and, potentially, intellectual property continue to evolve with increasingly strict enforcement regimes. In Europe, for example, we are subject to the EU data protection regulations, including the current EU Directive on Data Protection, which requires member states to impose minimum restrictions on the collection, use and transfer of personal data. A new EU General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") that will become enforceable in May 2018 includes, among other things, a requirement for prompt notice of data breaches to data subjects and supervisory authorities in certain circumstances and significant fines for non-compliance. The GDPR also requires companies processing personal data of individuals residing in the EU to comply with EU privacy and data protection rules.
These laws and regulations impact the ways in which we use and manage personal data, protected health information, and our information technology systems. They also impact our ability to move, store, and access data across geographic boundaries. Compliance with these requirements may require changes in business practices, complicate our operations, and add complexity and additional management and oversight needs. They also may complicate our clinical research activities, as well as product offerings that involve transmission or use of clinical data.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
We seek patent and trademark protection for our key technology, products and product improvements, both in the U.S. and in selected foreign countries. When determined appropriate, we have enforced and plan to continue to enforce and defend our patent and trademark rights. In general, however, we do not rely solely on our patent and trademark estate to provide us with any significant competitive advantages as it relates to our existing product lines. We also rely upon trade secrets and continuing technological innovations to develop and maintain our competitive position. In an effort to protect our trade secrets, we have a policy of requiring our employees, consultants and advisors to execute proprietary information and invention assignment agreements upon commencement of employment or consulting relationships with us. These agreements also provide that all confidential information developed or made known to the individual during the course of their relationship with us must be kept confidential, except in specified circumstances.
AccuDrain®, AmnioExcel®, AmnioMatrix®, BioDFactor®, BioDFence®, BioDOptix®, BioDRestore™, Bioguard®, BioMotion®, Bold®, Budde®, Buzz™, Cadence®, Capture™, Codman®, Codman Certas®, Codman VersaTru®, CRW®, CUSA®, DigiFuse®, DirectLink®, DuraGen®, DuraSeal®, First Choice®, Hallu®, HeliCote®, HeliPlug®, HeliTape®, HeliMend®, Helistat®, Helitene®, Integra®, IntegraLink®, IPP-ON®, Isocool®, Jarit®, Licox®, LimiTorr™, Luxtec®, MediHoney®, MemoFix®, MicroFrance®, Miltex®, Movement®, NeuraGen®, NeuraWrap™, NuGrip®, Omnigraft®, Omni-Tract®, OSV II®, Qwix®, Padgett®, Panta®, PriMatrix®, PyroSphere®, Redmond™, Ruggles®, SafeGuard®, Salto Talaris®, Subtalar MBA®, SurgiMend®, TCC-EZ®, TenoGlide®, Ti6®, Tibiaxys®, TissueMend®, Titan™ , TruArch®, Uni-CP®, Uni-Clip®, Xtrasorb® and the Integra logo are some of the material trademarks of Integra LifeSciences Corporation and its subsidiaries. MAYFIELD® is a registered trademark of SM USA, Inc., and is used by Integra under license.
EMPLOYEES
At December 31, 2017, we had approximately 4,400 employees engaged in production and production support for warehouse, engineering and facilities, quality assurance, quality control, research and development, regulatory and clinical affairs, sales, marketing, administration and finance. Except for certain employees at our facilities in Austria, Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Italy and Mexico, none of our employees are subject to a collective bargaining agreement.
FINANCIAL INFORMATION ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC AREAS
Financial information about our geographical areas is set forth under “Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Geographic Product Revenues and Operations” and in our financial statements Note 15, Segment and Geographic Information, to our consolidated financial statements.

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SOURCES OF RAW MATERIALS
In general, raw materials essential to our businesses are readily available from multiple sources. For reasons of quality assurance, availability, or cost effectiveness, certain components and raw materials are available only from a sole supplier. Our policy is to maintain sufficient inventory of components so that our production will not be significantly disrupted even if a particular component or material is not available for a period of time.
Certain of our products, including our dermal regeneration products, duraplasty products, wound care products, bone void fillers, nerve and tendon repair products and certain other products, contain material derived from bovine tissue. We take great care to provide that our products are safe and free of agents that can cause disease. In particular, the collagen used in the products that Integra manufactures is derived either from the deep flexor tendon of cattle less than 24 months old from New Zealand, a country that has never had a reported case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or from the U.S. or from fetal bovine dermis. The World Health Organization classifies different types of cattle tissue for relative risk of BSE transmission. Deep flexor tendon and fetal bovine skin are in the lowest-risk category for BSE transmission, and is therefore considered to have a negligible risk of containing the agent that causes BSE.

SEASONALITY
Revenues during our fourth quarter tend to be stronger than other quarters because many hospitals increase their purchases of our products during the fourth quarter to coincide with the end of their budget cycles in the U.S. In general, our first quarter usually has lower revenues than the preceding fourth quarter, the second and third quarters have higher revenues than the first quarter, and the fourth quarter revenues are the highest in the year. The main exceptions to this pattern occur because of material intervening acquisitions.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION
We are subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (the “Exchange Act”). In accordance with the Exchange Act, we file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission. You may view our financial information, including the information contained in this report, and other reports we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, on the Internet, without charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we file them with the Securities and Exchange Commission, in the “SEC Filings” page of the Investor Relations section of our website at www.integralife.com. You may also obtain a copy of any of these reports, without charge, from our Investor Relations department, 311 Enterprise Drive, Plainsboro, NJ 08536. Alternatively, you may view or obtain reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission at the SEC Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E. in Washington, D.C. 20549, or at the Securities and Exchange Commission's Internet site at www.sec.gov. Please call the Securities and Exchange Commission at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the public reference facilities.

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
We have made statements in this report, including statements under “Business” and “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” that constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions about us including, among other things:

general economic and business conditions, both nationally and in our international markets;
our expectations and estimates concerning future financial performance, financing plans and the impact of competition;
anticipated trends in our business;
anticipated demand for our products, particularly capital equipment;
our ability to produce collagen-based products in sufficient quantities to meet sales demands;
our expectations concerning our ongoing restructuring, integration and manufacturing transfer and expansion activities;
existing and future regulations affecting our business, and enforcement of those regulations;
our ability to obtain additional debt and equity financing to fund capital expenditures and working capital requirements and acquisitions;
physicians' willingness to adopt our recently launched and planned products, third-party payors' willingness to provide or continue reimbursement for any of our products and our ability to secure regulatory approval for products in development;
initiatives launched by our competitors;
our ability to protect our intellectual property, including trade secrets;
our ability to complete acquisitions, integrate operations post-acquisition and maintain relationships with customers of acquired entities;
our ability to remediate all matters identified in FDA observations and warning letters that we received or may receive; and
other risk factors described in the section entitled "Risk Factors" in this report.
 

You can identify these forward-looking statements by forward-looking words such as “believe,” “may,” “could,” “might,” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “seek,” “plan,” “expect,” “should,” “would” and similar expressions in this report. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. In light of these risks and uncertainties, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this report may not occur and actual results could differ materially from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Risks Related to Our Business
Our operating results may fluctuate.
Our operating results, including components of operating results such as gross margin and cost of product sales, may fluctuate from time to time, and such fluctuations could affect our stock price. Our operating results have fluctuated in the past and can be expected to fluctuate from time to time in the future. Some of the factors that may cause these fluctuations include:

economic conditions worldwide, which could affect the ability of hospitals and other customers to purchase our products and could result in a reduction in elective and non-reimbursed operative procedures;
the impact of acquisitions and our ability to integrate acquisitions;
the impact of our restructuring activities;
expenditures for major initiatives, including acquired businesses and integrations thereof and restructuring;
the timing of significant customer orders, which tend to increase in the fourth quarter to coincide with the end of budget cycles for many hospitals;
market acceptance of our existing products, as well as products in development;
the timing of regulatory approvals as well as changes in country-specific regulatory requirements;
changes in the rates of exchange between the U.S. dollar and other currencies of foreign countries in which we do business;
potential backorders, lost sales and expenses incurred in connection with product recalls or field corrective actions;
disruption of our operations and sales resulting from extreme weather conditions or natural disasters that damage our manufacturing or distribution facilities, the suppliers and service providers for those facilities, or the infrastructure in the locations of those facilities;

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our ability to manufacture and ship our products efficiently or in sufficient quantities to meet sales demands;
changes in the cost or decreases in the supply of raw materials, including energy, steel and honey;
the timing of our research and development expenditures;
reimbursement for our products by third-party payors such as Medicare, Medicaid, private and public health insurers and foreign governmental health systems;
the ability to maintain existing distribution rights to and from certain third parties;
the ability to maintain business if or when we opt to convert such business from distributors to a direct sales model;
the ability of our new commercial sales representatives to obtain sales targets in a reasonable time frame;
the impact of changes to our sales organization, including channel expansion in the U.S. and increased specialization;
peer-reviewed publications discussing the clinical effectiveness of the products we sell;
inspections of our manufacturing facilities for compliance with Quality System Regulations (Good Manufacturing Practices) which could result in Form 483 observations, warning letters, injunctions or other adverse findings from the FDA or from equivalent regulatory bodies, and corrective actions, procedural changes and other actions that we determine are necessary or appropriate to address the results of those inspections, any of which may affect production and our ability to supply our customers with our products;
changes in regulations or guidelines that impact the sales and marketing practices for products that we sell;
the increased regulatory scrutiny of certain of our products, including products which we manufacture for others, could result in their being removed from the market or involve field corrective actions that could affect the marketability of our products;
enforcement or defense of intellectual property rights;
changes in tax laws, or their interpretations; and
the impact of goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges if future operating results of the acquired businesses are significantly less than the results anticipated at the time of the acquisitions.

The industry and market segments in which we operate are highly competitive, and we may be unable to compete effectively with other companies.
There is intense competition among medical device companies. We compete with established medical technology companies in many of our product areas. Competition also comes from early-stage companies that have alternative technological solutions for our primary clinical targets, as well as universities, research institutions and other non-profit entities. In certain cases, our products compete primarily against medical practices that treat a condition without using a device or any particular product, such as the medical practices that use autograft tissue instead of our dermal regeneration products, duraplasty products and nerve repair products. Many of our competitors have access to greater financial, technical, research and development, marketing, manufacturing, sales, distribution, administrative, consulting and other resources than we do. Our competitors may be more effective at developing commercial products. Our competitors may be able to gain market share by offering lower-cost products or by offering products that enjoy better reimbursement methodologies from third-party payors, such as Medicare, Medicaid, private and public health insurers and foreign governmental health systems.
Our competitive position will depend on our ability to achieve market acceptance for our products, develop new products, implement production and marketing plans, secure regulatory approval for products under development, obtain and maintain reimbursement coverage under Medicare, Medicaid, private and public health insurers and foreign governmental health systems, obtain patent protection and to produce products consistently in sufficient quantities to meet demand. We may need to develop new applications for our products to remain competitive. Technological advances by one or more of our current or future competitors or their achievement of superior reimbursement from Medicare, Medicaid, private and public health insurers and foreign governmental health systems could render our present or future products obsolete or uneconomical. Our future success will depend upon our ability to compete effectively against current technology as well as to respond effectively to technological advances and changes in a customer's requirements. Additionally, purchasing decisions of our customers may be based on clinical evidence or comparative effectiveness studies and, because of our vast array of products, we might not be able to fund the studies necessary to gain entry or maintain our position or provide the required information to compete effectively. Other companies may have more resources available to fund such studies. For example, competitors have launched and have been developing products to compete with our dural repair products, extremity reconstruction implants, regenerative skin, neuro critical care monitors and ultrasonic tissue ablation devices, among others. Further, in the current environment of managed care, consolidation among health care providers, increased competition, and declining reimbursement rates, we have been increasingly required to compete on the basis of price. Competitive pressures could adversely affect our profitability. Given these factors, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to compete effectively or continue our level of success in the areas in which we compete.

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If there is a determination that the spin-off of SeaSpine is taxable for U.S. federal income tax purposes, then we and our stockholders that are subject to U.S. federal income tax could incur significant U.S. federal income tax liabilities and, in certain circumstances, we could be required to indemnify SeaSpine for material taxes pursuant to indemnification obligations under the tax matters agreement.
On July 1, 2015, we completed the separation (the “Separation”) of our orthobiologics and spinal fusion hardware business, now known as SeaSpine Holdings Corporation (“SeaSpine”), from the Company. We received an opinion of Latham & Watkins LLP, tax counsel to us (the “Tax Opinion”), substantially to the effect that (i) the contribution of the stock of SeaSpine Orthopedics Corporation to SeaSpine, together with the internal distribution of the stock of SeaSpine to Integra (collectively, the “internal distribution”), will constitute a reorganization under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) and (ii) the contribution of cash from us to SeaSpine (the “cash contribution”), together with the distribution of the stock of SeaSpine to our shareholders (the “distribution”), will constitute a reorganization under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code. Based on this tax treatment, the distribution will be tax-free to Integra and its stockholders for U.S. federal income tax purposes (except for any cash received in lieu of fractional shares). The Tax Opinion relied on certain facts, assumptions, representations and undertakings from us and SeaSpine regarding the past and future conduct of the companies’ respective businesses and other matters. The Tax Opinion is not binding on the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) or the courts. Notwithstanding the opinion, the IRS could determine on audit that the internal distribution, the cash contribution and the distribution should be treated as taxable transactions if it determines that any of the facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings we or SeaSpine have made is not correct or has been violated, or that the internal distribution, the cash contribution and the distribution should be taxable for other reasons, including as a result of a significant change in stock or asset ownership after the distribution. If the distribution ultimately is determined to be taxable, the distribution could be treated as a taxable dividend or capital gain to our stockholders for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and our stockholders could incur significant U.S. federal income tax liabilities. In addition, we would recognize gain in an amount equal to the excess of the fair market value of shares of SeaSpine common stock distributed to our stockholders on the distribution date over our tax basis in such shares of SeaSpine common stock. Moreover, we could incur significant U.S. federal income tax liabilities if it is ultimately determined that the internal distribution does not qualify as a transaction that is tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
We may be subject to continuing contingent liabilities of SeaSpine following the spin-off.
After the Separation, there are several significant areas where the liabilities of SeaSpine may become our obligations. For example, under the Code and the related rules and regulations, each corporation that was a member of our consolidated U.S. federal income tax reporting group during any taxable period or portion of any taxable period ending on or before the effective time of the spin-off is jointly and severally liable for the U.S. federal income tax liability of the entire consolidated tax reporting group for that taxable period. If SeaSpine is unable to pay any prior period taxes for which it is responsible, we could be required to pay the entire amount of such taxes.
Our current strategy involves growth through acquisitions, which requires us to incur substantial costs and potential liabilities for which we may never realize the anticipated benefits.
In addition to internally generated growth, our current strategy involves growth through acquisitions. Between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2017, we have acquired 7 businesses at a total cost of approximately $1.56 billion.

We may be unable to continue to implement our growth strategy, and our strategy ultimately may be unsuccessful. A significant portion of our growth in revenues has resulted from, and is expected to continue to result from, the acquisition of businesses or products complementary to our own. We engage in evaluations of potential acquisitions and are in various stages of discussion regarding possible acquisitions, certain of which, if consummated, could be significant to us. Any new acquisition could result in material transaction expenses, increased interest and amortization expense, increased depreciation expense, increased operating expense, and possible in-process research and development charges for acquisitions that do not meet the definition of a “business,” any of which could have a material, adverse effect on our operating results. Certain businesses that we acquire may not have adequate financial, disclosure, regulatory, quality or other compliance controls at the time we acquire them. As we grow by acquisition, we must manage and integrate the new businesses to bring them into our systems for financial, disclosure, compliance, regulatory and quality control, realize economies of scale, and control costs. If we cannot integrate acquired businesses and operations, manage the cost of providing our products or price our products appropriately, our profitability could suffer. In addition, acquisitions involve other risks, including diversion of management resources otherwise available for development of our business and risks associated with entering markets in which our marketing teams and sales force has limited experience or where experienced distribution alliances are not available. Our future profitability will depend in part upon our ability to develop further our resources to adapt to these new products or business areas and to identify and enter into or maintain satisfactory distribution networks. Further, as a result of our acquisitions of other healthcare businesses, we may be subject to the risk of unanticipated business uncertainties, regulatory and other compliance matters or legal liabilities relating to those acquired businesses for which the sellers of the acquired businesses may not indemnify us, for which we may not be able to obtain insurance (or adequate insurance), or

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for which the indemnification may not be sufficient to cover the ultimate liabilities. We may not be able to identify suitable acquisition candidates in the future, obtain acceptable financing or consummate any future acquisitions. Certain potential acquisitions are subject to antitrust and competition laws, which laws could impact our ability to pursue strategic acquisitions and could result in mandated divestitures. If we are unsuccessful in our acquisition strategy, we may be unable to meet our financial targets and our financial performance could be materially and adversely affected.
Our future financial results could be adversely affected by impairments or other charges.
Since we have grown through acquisitions, we have $937.9 million of goodwill and $163.9 million of indefinite-lived intangible assets as of December 31, 2017. Under the authoritative guidance for determining the useful life of intangible assets, we are required to test both goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment on an annual basis based upon a fair value approach, rather than amortizing them over time. We are also required to test goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment between annual tests if an event occurs such as a significant decline in revenues or cash flows for certain products, or the discount rates used in the calculations of discounted cash flow change significantly, or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce our enterprise fair value below its book value. If such a decline, rate change or circumstance were to materialize, we may record an impairment of these intangible assets that could be material to the financial statements. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Critical Accounting Estimates” of this report.
The guidance on long-lived assets requires that we assess the impairment of our long-lived assets, including finite-lived intangible assets, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable as measured by the sum of the expected future undiscounted cash flows. As of December 31, 2017, we had $995.7 million and $269.3 million of finite-lived intangible assets and property, plant and equipment, respectively.
At December 31, 2017, our trade names had a carrying value of $245.5 million and decisions relating to our trade names may occur over time. Additionally, we may discontinue certain products in the future as we continue to assess the profitability of our product lines. As a result, we may need to record impairment charges or accelerate amortization on certain trade names or technology-related intangible assets in the future.
The value of a medical device business is often volatile, and the assumptions underlying our estimates made in connection with our assessments under the guidance may change as a result of that volatility or other factors outside our control and may result in impairment charges. The amount of any such impairment charges could be significant and could have a material, adverse effect on our reported financial results for the period in which the charge is taken and could have an adverse effect on the market price of our securities, including the notes and the common stock into which they may be converted.
The adoption of healthcare reform in the U.S. and initiatives sponsored by other governments may adversely affect our business, results of operations and/or financial condition.
Our operations may be substantially affected by potential fundamental changes in the global political, economic and regulatory landscape of the healthcare industry. Government and private sector initiatives to limit the growth of healthcare costs are continuing in the U.S., and in many other countries in which we do business, causing the marketplace to put increased emphasis on the delivery of more cost-effective treatments. These initiatives include price regulation, competitive pricing, coverage and payment policies, comparative effectiveness of therapies, technology assessments and managed-care arrangements. The adoption of some or all of these initiatives could have a material, adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
For example, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the “Affordable Care Act”), which was signed into law in March 2010, includes several provisions that impact our businesses in the U.S. The Affordable Care Act includes provisions that, among other things, reduce and/or limit Medicare reimbursement, require all individuals to have health insurance (with limited exceptions), require detailed disclosure of gifts and other remuneration made to healthcare professionals and impose new and/or increased taxes. Specifically, the law requires the medical device industry to subsidize healthcare reform by implementing a 2.3% excise tax, which commenced on January 1, 2013, on the sale of certain medical devices by a manufacturer, producer or importer of such devices in the U.S. In December 2015, President Obama signed into law The Consolidated Appropriations Act, which included a two-year moratorium on the 2.3% medical device excise tax, with the effect such that medical device revenues earned in 2016 and 2017 were exempt from such tax. On January 22, 2018, President Trump signed into law a funding bill, which extended the moratorium on the medical device excise tax for another two years through December 31, 2019. Unless there is further legislative action during that two-year period, the medical device excise tax automatically will be reinstated for sales of medical devices on or after January 1, 2020. While this two-year moratorium on the medical device excise tax could provide a short-term benefit to the Company in terms of providing additional monies available to spend on various projects in 2018 and 2019, we are unable to predict what the long-term impact will have on our financial statements and financial performance.
In addition, the Affordable Care Act encourages hospitals and physicians to work collaboratively through shared savings programs, such as accountable care organizations, as well as other bundled payment initiatives, which may ultimately result in the reduction of sales of medical devices and the consolidation of medical device suppliers that hospitals use.

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Since the adoption of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, the law has been challenged before the U.S. Supreme Court, and several bills have been and may continue to be introduced in Congress to delay, defund or repeal implementation of or amend significant provisions of the Affordable Care Act. In addition, there continues to be ongoing litigation over the interpretation and implementation of certain provisions of the law. Furthermore, on January 20, 2017, an executive order was issued that, among other things, stated the intention of the administration to repeal the Affordable Care Act and, pending that repeal, instructed the executive branch of the Federal government to defer or delay the implementation of any provision or requirement of the Affordable Care Act that would impose a fiscal burden on any state or a cost, fee, tax or penalty on any individual, family, health care provider, health insurer, or manufacturer of pharmaceuticals or medical devices. On December 22, 2017, President Trump signed into law the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which eliminates the penalty for individuals who fail to purchase acceptable health insurance starting in 2019 and will most likely result in the reduction in the number of insured people in the U.S. We cannot predict whether the Affordable Care Act will be repealed, replaced, or further modified, what impact the President’s executive order will have on the implementation and enforcement of the provisions of the Affordable Care Act, or what impact the elimination of the penalty and resulting reduction in the number of insured people in the U.S. will have on the demand and pricing for our products. In addition, if the Affordable Care Act is replaced or modified, we cannot predict what the replacement plan or modifications would be, when the replacement plan or modifications would become effective, or whether any of the existing provisions of the Affordable Care Act would remain in place. As a result, while we are unable to predict the effect of the Affordable Care Act and the various activities surrounding it on our business, financial condition or results of operations, changes to this law, or a new law that replaces it, could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
In addition to the Affordable Care Act, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (“MACRA”) repealed the Sustainable Growth Rate formula used to calculate Medicare payment updates for physicians providing services to Medicare beneficiaries. In its place, MACRA introduced the Quality Payment Program (“QPP”), which is a value-based program that focuses on quality and outcomes as a metric for physician reimbursement. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services released its final rules for the QPP in October 2016. The QPP, which impacts more than 600,000 physicians and other practice-based clinicians, represents a fundamental change in physician reimbursement, transitioning from a system that solely rewards volume of care to one that also rewards quality and value of care. While the full impact of QPP on physicians’ practices and product selection decisions will not be fully known until payment adjustments go into effect in 2019, 2017 represented the first performance measurement year. The program’s increased emphasis on quality and cost of care may encourage physicians to merge practices or seek direct employment with hospitals. This shift could lead to a consolidation of a portion of our customer base, which could have a negative impact on the rate of adoption and utilization of the Company’s new and existing products. Although we believe that we are well positioned to minimize any such impact on our business, our inability to address the consolidation trend could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Other initiatives sponsored by government agencies, legislative bodies and the private sector to limit the growth of healthcare costs, including price regulation and competitive pricing, are ongoing in the markets where we do business. We cannot predict what healthcare programs and regulations will ultimately be implemented at the U.S. federal or state level or elsewhere, or the effect of any future legislation or regulation in the U.S. or elsewhere. That said, any changes that lower reimbursements for our products or reduce medical procedure volumes could have a material, adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We continue to monitor the implementation of such legislation and, to the extent new market or industry trends or new governmental programs evolve, we will consider implementing or implement programs in response.
Changes in the healthcare industry may require us to decrease the selling price for our products, may reduce the size of the market for our products, or may eliminate a market, any of which could have a negative impact on our financial performance.
Trends toward managed care, healthcare cost containment and other changes in government and private sector initiatives in the U.S. and other countries in which we do business are placing increased emphasis on the delivery of more cost-effective medical therapies that could adversely affect the sale and/or the prices of our products. For example:

third-party payors of hospital services and hospital outpatient services, including Medicare, Medicaid, private and public health insurers and foreign governmental health systems, annually revise their payment methodologies, which can result in stricter standards for reimbursement of hospital charges for certain medical procedures or the elimination of reimbursement;     
several foreign countries have implemented reforms of their respective healthcare sectors in an effort to reduce healthcare spending, including restricting funding to only those medical technologies and procedures with proven effectiveness, and increasing patient co-payments. Governmental health systems have revised and continue to consider revisions of healthcare budgets, which could result in stricter standards for implementing certain medical procedures, increased scrutiny of medical devices, and downward pricing pressure;
Medicare, Medicaid, private and public health insurer and foreign governmental cutbacks could create downward pricing pressure on our products;    

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in the U.S., local Medicare coverage as well as commercial carrier coverage determinations could reduce or eliminate reimbursement or coverage for certain of our wound matrix products as well as other collagen products in most regions, negatively affecting our market for these products, and future determinations could reduce or eliminate reimbursement or coverage for these products in other regions and could reduce or eliminate reimbursement or coverage for other products;
there has been a consolidation among healthcare facilities and purchasers of medical devices in the U.S., some of whom prefer to limit the number of suppliers from whom they purchase medical products, and these entities may decide to stop purchasing our products or demand discounts on our prices;
there has been a growing movement of physicians becoming employees of hospitals and other healthcare entities, which aligns surgeon product choices with his or her employers' purchasing decisions, and adds to pricing pressures;
in the U.S., we are party to contracts with group purchasing organizations, which negotiate pricing for many member hospitals, require us to discount our prices for certain of our products and limit our ability to raise prices for certain of our products, particularly surgical instruments;
there is economic pressure to contain healthcare costs in domestic and international markets, and, regardless of the consolidation discussed above, providers generally are exploring ways to cut costs by eliminating purchases or driving reductions in the prices that they pay for medical devices, or increasing clinical or economic evidence thresholds for product formularies;
there are proposed and existing laws, regulations and industry policies in domestic and international markets regulating the sales and marketing practices and the pricing and profitability of companies in the healthcare industry;
proposed laws or regulations may permit hospitals to provide financial incentives to doctors for reducing hospital costs, will award physician efficiency, and will encourage partnerships with healthcare service and goods providers to reduce prices; and                 
there have been initiatives by third-party payors and foreign governmental health systems to challenge the prices charged for medical products that could affect our ability to sell products on a competitive basis.
Any and all of the above factors could materially and adversely affect our levels of revenue and our profitability.
We are subject to stringent domestic and foreign medical device regulation and any adverse regulatory action may adversely affect our financial condition and business operations.
Our products, development activities and manufacturing processes are subject to extensive and rigorous regulation by numerous government agencies, including the FDA and comparable foreign agencies. To varying degrees, each of these agencies monitors and enforces our compliance with laws and regulations governing the development, testing, manufacturing, labeling, marketing and distribution of our medical devices. We are also subject to regulations that may apply to certain of our products that are Drug/Device Combination products or are considered to be subject to pharmaceutical regulations outside the U.S. The process of obtaining marketing approval or clearance from the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory agencies for new products, or for enhancements or modifications to existing products, could
take a significant amount of time;
require the expenditure of substantial financial and other resources;
involve rigorous and expensive pre-clinical and clinical testing, as well as increased post-market surveillance;
involve modifications, repairs or replacements of our products; and
result in limitations on the indicated uses of our products.

We cannot be certain that we will receive required approval or clearance from the FDA and foreign regulatory agencies for new products or modifications to existing products on a timely basis. The failure to receive approval or clearance for significant new products or modifications to existing products on a timely basis could have a material, adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Both before and after a product is commercially released, we have ongoing responsibilities under FDA regulations. For example, we are required to comply with the FDA's Quality System Regulation, which mandates that manufacturers of medical devices adhere to certain quality assurance requirements pertaining to, among other things, validation of manufacturing processes, controls for purchasing product components, and documentation practices. As another example, the Federal Medical Device Reporting regulation requires us to provide information to the FDA whenever there is evidence that reasonably suggests that a device may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or, that a malfunction occurred which would be likely to cause or contribute to a death or serious injury upon recurrence. Compliance with applicable regulatory requirements is subject to continual review and is monitored rigorously through periodic inspections by the FDA, which may result in observations on Form 483, and in some cases warning letters, that require corrective action. If the FDA were to conclude that we are not in compliance with applicable laws or regulations, or that any of our medical devices are ineffective or pose an unreasonable health risk, the FDA could ban such medical devices, detain or seize such medical devices, order a recall, repair, replacement, or refund of such devices, or require us to notify health professionals and others that the devices present unreasonable risks of substantial harm to the public health.

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The FDA has intensified its scrutiny of the medical device industry and the government is expected to continue to scrutinize the industry closely with inspections, and possibly enforcement actions, by the FDA or other agencies. Additionally, the FDA may restrict manufacturing and impose other operating restrictions, enjoin and restrain certain violations of applicable law pertaining to medical devices, and assess civil or criminal penalties against our officers, employees, or us. The FDA may also recommend prosecution to the Department of Justice. Any adverse regulatory action, depending on its magnitude, may restrict us from effectively manufacturing, marketing and selling our products and could have a material, adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, negative publicity and product liability claims resulting from any adverse regulatory action could have a material, adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
While we have taken measures to enhance our Quality System, we cannot assure you that future inspections by the FDA and the standards they apply will not result in warning letters for any facility in the future. We are also subject to inspections of our Quality System by regulatory agencies outside the U.S. which could result in the issuance of nonconformance or significant requirements to our Quality System.
The FDA Reauthorization Act of 2017 (“FDARA”), which includes the reauthorization of the Medical Device User Fee Amendments of 2012, as well as other medical device provisions, went into effect October 1, 2017. This includes performance goals and user fees paid to the FDA by medical device companies when they register and list with the FDA and when they submit an application to market a device in the U.S. Under FDARA, this user fee program has been reauthorized through fiscal year 2022. Under the Medical Device User Fee Amendments, or MDUFA III, there are additional requirements regarding the FDA Establishment Registration and Listing of Medical Devices. All U.S. and foreign manufacturers must register and list medical devices for sale in the U.S. All of our facilities comply with these requirements. That said, we also source products from foreign contract manufacturers. From this business practice, it is possible that some of our foreign contract manufacturers will not comply with these requirements and choose not to register with the FDA. In such an event, we will need to determine if there are alternative foreign contract manufacturers who comply with the FDA Establishment Registration requirements. If such a foreign contract manufacturer is a sole supplier of one of our products, there is a risk that we may not be able to source another supplier.
The FDA issued a final rule on September 24, 2013 to establish a system to adequately identify devices through distribution and use. This rule requires the label of medical devices to include a unique device identifier ("UDI"), except where the rule provides for an exception or alternative placement. The labeler must submit product information concerning devices to FDA's Global Unique Device Identification Database ("GUDID"), unless subject to an exception or alternative. The system established by this rule requires the label and device package of each medical device to include a UDI and requires that each UDI be provided in a plain-text version and in a form that uses automatic identification and data capture technology. If the device is intended to be used more than once and intended to be reprocessed before each use, then there is a requirement for the UDI to be directly marked on the device itself. This regulation has required and may continue to require significant resources and expense to comply with the regulation.
We have complied with the requirements of this regulation for our Class III products by meeting the September 2014 deadline, our Class II implantable products by meeting the September 2015 deadline and for all Class II products by meeting the September 2016 deadline for labeling and entering the data in FDA's GUDID Database. The FDA has extended the deadline for complying with these requirements for medical devices that present a lower risk to patients to September 24, 2022.
The FDA issued regulations regarding “Current Good Manufacturing Practice Requirements for Combination Products” on January 22, 2013. These regulations apply to some of our product lines that have been designated by the FDA as Combination Products. There have been and will be additional costs associated with compliance with the FDA Good Manufacturing Practice Requirements regulations for Combination Products.
In addition, the United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (“FDCA”) permits device manufacturers to promote products solely for the uses and indications set forth in the approved product labeling. A number of enforcement actions have been taken against manufacturers that promote products for “off-label” uses, including actions alleging that federal health care program reimbursement of products promoted for "off-label" uses are false and fraudulent claims to the government. The failure to comply with “off-label” promotion restrictions can result in significant financial penalties and a required corporate integrity agreement with the federal government imposing significant administrative obligations and costs, and potential evaluation from federal health care programs.
Foreign governmental regulations have become more stringent and we may become subject to even more rigorous regulation by foreign governmental authorities in the future, which could have a material, adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Penalties for a company's noncompliance with foreign governmental regulation could be severe, including revocation or suspension of a company's business license and criminal sanctions. For example, we are subject to Good Manufacturing Practice regulations for Pharmaceuticals in the EU for certain of our products. These regulations also mandate that manufacturers of medical devices (or those that are considered pharmaceuticals) adhere to certain quality assurance requirements

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pertaining to, among other things, validation of manufacturing processes, controls for purchasing product components, and documentation practices. There may be additional regulations if such products are considered pharmaceuticals outside the U.S.
In addition, the new European Medical Device Regulation (“EU MDR”) passed in the European Parliament on April 5, 2017 and went into effect on May 25, 2017, replacing the Medical Device Directive. The EU MDR is an extensive reform of the rules that govern the medical device industry in Europe. Under this regulation, manufacturers will have three (3) years to comply with a broad set of new rules for almost every kind of medical device. The EU MDR will require changes in the clinical evidence required for medical devices, post-market clinical follow-up evidence, annual reporting of safety information for Class III products, and bi-annual reporting for Class II products, Unique Device Identification (“UDI”) for all products, submission of core data elements to a European UDI database prior to placement of a device on the market, reclassification of medical devices, and multiple other labeling changes.

Under the new EU MDR rules, medical device companies will have to, among other things. do the following:
provide significantly more clinical evidence to get new products to market and even to keep existing products on the market;
make changes to product labeling and make certain product data available to the public; and
conduct product portfolio assessments to determine the impact of the EU MDR on the Company's margins.

Overall, medical device companies can expect longer lead times to obtain product registrations (CE Mark Certification) in the EU and a substantially costlier pathway to compliance in the EU. We are not yet able to determine the costs of complying with these regulations, how the EU will interpret and enforce them, what the timelines for approvals of products will be and the overall effect of the EU MDR on the marketplace. Given the significant additional pre-market and post-market requirements imposed by the EU MDR, the overall impact of these new rules could have a material, adverse effect on the Company’s revenues and expenses.
Certain of our products contain materials derived from animal sources and may become subject to additional regulation.
Certain of our products, including our dermal regeneration products, duraplasty products, wound care products, bone void fillers, nerve and tendon repair products and certain other products, contain material derived from bovine tissue. In 2017, approximately 41% of our revenues derived from products containing material derived from bovine tissue. Products that contain materials derived from animal sources, including food, pharmaceuticals and medical devices, are subject to scrutiny in the media and by regulatory authorities. Regulatory authorities are concerned about the potential for the transmission of disease from animals to humans via those materials. This public scrutiny has been particularly acute in Japan and Western Europe with respect to products derived from animal sources, because of concern that materials infected with the agent that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy, otherwise known as BSE or mad cow disease, may, if ingested or implanted, cause a variant of the human Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, an ultimately fatal disease with no known cure. The World Organization for Animal Health ("OIE") recognizes the U.S. as having a negligible risk for BSE, which is the highest status available.
We take care to provide that our products are safe and free of agents that can cause disease. In particular, we qualified a source of collagen from a country outside the U.S. that is considered BSE/TSE-free. The World Health Organization classifies different types of bovine tissue for relative risk of BSE transmission. Deep flexor tendon and bovine fetal skin, which are used in our products, are in the lowest-risk categories for BSE transmission and are therefore considered to have a negligible risk of containing the agent that causes BSE (an improperly folded protein known as a prion). Nevertheless, products that contain materials derived from animals, including our products, could become subject to additional regulation, or even be banned in certain countries, because of concern over the potential for the transmission of prions. Significant new regulation, or a ban of our products, could have a material, adverse effect on our current business or our ability to expand our business.
Certain countries, such as Japan, China, Taiwan and Argentina, have issued regulations that require our collagen products be sourced from countries where no cases of BSE have occurred, and the EU has requested that our dural replacement products and other products that are used in neurological tissue be sourced from a country where no cases of BSE have occurred. Currently, we source bovine fetal hides from the U.S. and purchase tendon from the U.S. and New Zealand. New Zealand has never had a case of BSE. We received approval in the U.S., the EU, Japan, Taiwan, China, Argentina as well as other countries for the use of New Zealand-sourced tendon in the manufacturing of our products. If we cannot continue to use or qualify a source of tendon from New Zealand or another country that has never had a case of BSE, we could be prohibited from selling our collagen products in certain countries.
Certain of our products are derived from human tissue and are subject to additional regulations and requirements.
We manufacture and distribute products derived from human tissue. The FDA has specific regulations governing human cells, tissues and cellular and tissue-based products, or HCT/Ps. An HCT/P is a product containing or consisting of human cells or tissue intended for transplantation into a human patient. Examples include bone, ligament, skin, amniotic tissue and cornea. HCT/Ps that meet the criteria for regulation solely under Section 361 of the Public Health Service Act (“Section 361”) are not subject to any premarket clearance or approval requirements but are subject to post-market regulatory requirements.

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Some HCT/Ps also meet the definition of a biological product, medical device or drug regulated under the FDCA. These biologic, device or drug HCT/Ps must comply both with the requirements exclusively applicable to Section 361 HCT/Ps and, in addition, with requirements applicable to biologics, devices or drugs, including premarket clearance or approval.

On June 22, 2015, the FDA issued an Untitled Letter alleging that BioD’s morselized amniotic membrane tissue based products do not meet the criteria for regulation as HCT/Ps solely under Section 361 and that, as a result, BioD would need a biologics license to lawfully market those morselized products. Since the issuance of the Untitled Letter, BioD and more recently the Company have been in discussions with the FDA to communicate their disagreement with the FDA’s assertion that certain products are more than minimally manipulated. The FDA has not changed its position that certain of the BioD acquired products are not eligible for marketing solely under Section 361.
  
In November 2017, the FDA issued the final guidance document related to human tissue titled, “Regulatory Considerations for Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products: Minimal Manipulation and Homologous Use” (the “HCT/P Final Guidance”). The HCT/P Final Guidance maintains the FDA’s position that products such as the Company’s morselized amniotic membrane tissue based products do not meet the criteria for regulation solely as HCT/Ps. In addition, the FDA articulated a risk-based approach to enforcement and, while some uses for amniotic membrane tissue based products would enjoy as much as thirty-six months of enforcement discretion, other high risk uses could be subject to immediate enforcement action. The Company does not believe the uses for its amniotic membrane tissue based products fall into the high risk category. Nonetheless, we can make no assurances that the FDA will continue to exercise its enforcement discretion with respect to the Company’s amniotic membrane tissue based products, and any potential action of the FDA could have a financial impact regarding the sales of such products. Although the Company continues to disagree with the FDA’s position, the Company has been considering and continues to consider regulatory approval pathways for its amniotic membrane tissue based products.
Lack of market acceptance for our products or market preference for technologies that compete with our products could reduce our revenues and profitability.
We cannot be certain that our current products or any other products that we develop or market will achieve or maintain market acceptance. Certain of the medical indications that our devices can treat can also be treated by other medical devices or by medical practices that do not include a device. The medical community widely accepts many alternative treatments, and certain of these other treatments have a long history of use. For example, the use of autograft tissue is a well-established means for repairing the dermis, and it competes for acceptance in the market with our collagen-based wound care products.
We cannot be certain that our new devices and procedures will be able to replace those established treatments or that physicians, the medical community or third-party payors, including Medicare, Medicaid, private and public health insurers and foreign governmental health systems, will accept and utilize our devices or any other medical products that we may develop. For example, greater market acceptance of our wound graft products may ultimately depend on our ability to demonstrate that higher rates of reimbursement are justified because they are an attractive and cost-effective alternative to other treatment options. Additionally, if there are negative events in the industry, whether real or perceived, there could be a negative impact on the industry as a whole.
In addition, our future success depends, in part, on our ability to license and develop additional products. Even if we determine that a product candidate has medical benefits, the cost of commercializing that product candidate, either through internal development or payments associated with licensing arrangements, could be too high to justify development. Competitors could develop products that are more effective, achieve or maintain more favorable reimbursement status from third-party payors both domestically and internationally, including Medicare, Medicaid, private and public health insurers, and foreign governmental health systems, cost less or are ready for commercial introduction before our products. If we are unable to develop additional commercially viable products, our future prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
Market acceptance of our products depends on many factors, including our ability to convince prospective collaborators and customers that our technology is an attractive alternative to other technologies, to manufacture products in sufficient quantities and at acceptable costs, and to supply and service sufficient quantities of our products directly or through our distribution alliances. In addition, unfavorable reimbursement methodologies, or adverse determinations of third-party payors, including Medicare, Medicaid, private and public health insurers, and foreign governmental health systems, regarding our products or third-party determinations that favor a competitor’s product over ours, could harm acceptance or continued use of our products. The industry is subject to rapid and continuous change arising from, among other things, consolidation, technological improvements, the pressure on governments, third-party payors and providers to reduce healthcare costs, and healthcare reform legislation and initiatives domestically and internationally. One or more of these factors may vary unpredictably, and such variations could have a material, adverse effect on our competitive position. We may not be able to adjust our contemplated plan of development to meet changing market demands.

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Economic and political instability around the world could adversely affect the ability of hospitals, other customers, suppliers and distributors to access funds or otherwise have available liquidity, which could reduce orders for our products or interrupt our production or distribution or result in a reduction in elective and non-reimbursed operative procedures.
Economic and political instability around the world could adversely affect the ability of hospitals and other customers to access funds to enable them to fund their operating and capital budgets. As a result, hospitals and other customers could reduce budgets or put all or part of their budgets on hold or close their operations, which could have a negative effect on our sales, particularly the sales of capital equipment such as our ultrasonic surgical aspirators, neuromonitors and stereotactic products, or result in a reduction in elective and non-reimbursed procedures. The occurrence of those economic conditions could make it more difficult for us to accurately forecast and plan our future business activities and depending on their severity, could have a material, adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may have additional tax liabilities.
We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and many foreign jurisdictions and are commonly audited by various tax authorities. In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. Although we believe that our tax estimates are reasonable, the final determination of tax audits and any related litigation could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals. The results of an audit or litigation could have a material, adverse effect on our financial statements in the period or periods for which that determination is made.
Our substantial leverage and debt service obligations could adversely affect our business.
As of December 31, 2017, our total consolidated external debt was approximately $1.9 billion. (See “Amended and Restated Senior Credit Agreement” in Item 7 for a discussion of our debt facility.) We may also incur additional indebtedness in the future. Our substantial indebtedness could have material, adverse consequences, including:
making it more difficult for us to satisfy our financial obligations;
increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic, regulatory and industry conditions, and placing us at a disadvantage compared to our competitors that are less leveraged;
limiting our ability to compete and our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate; and
limiting our ability to borrow additional funds for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and general corporate or other purposes.
Our debt service obligations will require us to use a portion of our operating cash flow to pay interest and principal on indebtedness instead of for other corporate purposes, including funding future expansion of our business, acquisitions, and ongoing capital expenditures, which could impede our growth. In addition, the Company may attempt to refinance or extend this obligation depending on prevailing market conditions. Our ability to refinance or extend this obligation will depend on our operating and financial performance, which in turn is subject to prevailing economic conditions and financial, business and other factors beyond our control. Any disruptions in our operations, the financial markets, or overall economy may adversely affect the availability and cost of credit to us.
It could be difficult to replace some of our suppliers.
Outside vendors, some of whom are sole-source suppliers, provide key components and raw materials used in the manufacture of our products. Although we believe that alternative sources for many of these components and raw materials are available, any interruption in supply of a limited or sole-source component or raw material could harm our ability to manufacture our products until a new or alternative source of supply is identified and qualified. In addition, an uncorrected defect or supplier’s variation in a component or raw material, either unknown to us or incompatible with our manufacturing process, could harm our ability to manufacture products. We may not be able to find a sufficient alternative supplier in a reasonable time period, or on commercially reasonable terms, if at all, and our ability to produce and supply our products could be impaired. We believe that these factors are most likely to affect the following products that we manufacture:

our collagen-based products, such as the Integra Dermal Regeneration Template and wound matrix products, the DuraGen® family of products, our Absorbable Collagen Sponges, Primatrix and SurgiMend products;
our products made from silicone, such as our neurosurgical shunts and drainage systems and hemodynamic shunts;
products which use many different specialty parts from numerous suppliers, such as our intracranial monitors, catheters and headlights;
products that use pyrolytic carbon (i.e., PyroCarbon) technology, such as certain of our reconstructive extremity orthopedic implants;

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products that use medical grade leptospermum honey, such as our Medihoney products; and
our TCC-EZ® total contact cast system products.
In connection with our Confluent Surgical acquisition in January 2014, we entered into a multi-year supply agreement with an affiliate of the seller to continue to manufacture the acquired surgical sealant and adhesion barrier product lines. Pursuant to a contract we entered in 2015, we anticipate that upon receiving regulatory approval we will transfer manufacturing of these product lines to a third party in 2018.
If we were suddenly unable to purchase products or services from one or more of the companies identified above, we would need a significant period of time to qualify a replacement, and the production of any affected products could be disrupted, which could have a material, adverse effect on our financial condition and business operations.
While it is our policy to maintain sufficient inventory of components so that our production will not be significantly disrupted even if a particular component or material is not available for a period of time, we remain at risk that we will not be able to qualify new components or materials quickly enough to prevent a disruption if one or more of our suppliers ceases production of important components or materials.
Our intellectual property rights may not provide meaningful commercial protection for our products, potentially enabling third parties to use our technology or very similar technology and could reduce our ability to compete in the market.
To compete effectively, we depend, in part, on our ability to maintain the proprietary nature of our technologies and manufacturing processes, which includes the ability to obtain, protect and enforce patents on our technology and to protect our trade secrets. We own or have licensed patents that cover aspects of some of our product lines. Our patents, however, may not provide us with any significant competitive advantage. Others may challenge our patents and, as a result, our patents could be narrowed, invalidated or rendered unenforceable. Competitors may develop products similar to ours that our patents do not cover. In addition, the approval or rejection of patent applications may take several years and our current and future patent applications may not result in the issuance of patents in the U.S. or foreign countries.
Our competitive position depends, in part, upon unpatented trade secrets, which we may be unable to protect.
Our competitive position also depends upon unpatented trade secrets, which are difficult to protect. We cannot assure you that others will not independently develop substantially equivalent proprietary information and techniques or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets, that our trade secrets will not be disclosed or that we can effectively protect our rights to unpatented trade secrets.
In an effort to protect our trade secrets, we require our employees, consultants and advisors to execute confidentiality and invention assignment agreements upon commencement of employment or consulting relationships with us. These agreements provide that, except in specified circumstances, all confidential information developed or made known to the individual during the course of her relationship with us must be kept confidential. We cannot assure you, however, that these agreements will provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets or other proprietary information in the event of the unauthorized use or disclosure of confidential information.
Our success will depend partly on our ability to operate without infringing or misappropriating the proprietary rights of others.
We may be sued for infringing the intellectual property rights of others. In addition, we may find it necessary, if threatened, to initiate a lawsuit seeking a declaration from a court that we do not infringe the proprietary rights of others or that their rights are invalid or unenforceable. If we do not prevail in any litigation, in addition to any damages we might have to pay, we would be required to stop the infringing activity (which could include a cessation of selling the products in question) or obtain a license for the proprietary rights involved. Any required license may be unavailable to us on acceptable terms, if at all. In addition, some licenses may be nonexclusive and allow our competitors to access the same technology we license.
If we fail to obtain a required license or are unable to design our products so as not to infringe on the proprietary rights of others, we may be unable to sell some of our products, and this potential inability could have a material, adverse effect on our revenues and profitability.

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We may be involved in lawsuits relating to our intellectual property rights and promotional practices, which may be expensive.
To protect or enforce our intellectual property rights, we may have to initiate or defend legal proceedings, such as infringement suits or opposition proceedings, against or by third parties. In addition, we may have to institute proceedings regarding our competitors’ promotional practices or defend proceedings regarding our promotional practices. Legal proceedings are costly, and, even if we prevail, the cost of the legal proceedings could affect our profitability. In addition, litigation is time-consuming and could divert management's attention and resources away from our business. Moreover, in response to our claims against other parties, those parties could assert counterclaims against us.
If we do not successfully integrate newly acquired businesses into our business operations, including Codman Neurosurgery and Derma Sciences, our business could be materially and adversely affected.
We will need to successfully integrate the operations of recently and pending acquired businesses, including our acquisitions of Codman Neurosurgery and Derma Sciences, with our business operations. The failure to integrate the business operations of the acquired businesses successfully would have a material, adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. As a result of these acquisitions, we will undergo substantial changes in a short period of time and our business will change and broaden in size and the scope of products we offer. Integrating the operations of multiple new businesses with that of our own is a complex, costly and time-consuming process, which requires significant management attention and resources, including the coordination of information technologies, sales and marketing, research and development, operations, manufacturing and finance functions. The integration process could disrupt the businesses and, if implemented ineffectively, could preclude realization of the full benefits that we expect from these transactions. Our failure to meet the challenges involved in integrating the businesses in order to realize the anticipated benefits of the acquisitions could cause an interruption of, or a loss of momentum in, our activities and could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. Prior to each acquisition, the acquired business operated independently, with its own business, corporate culture, locations, employees and systems. There may be substantial difficulties, costs and delays involved in any integration of other businesses with that of our own. These may include:
distracting management from day-to-day operations;
potential incompatibility of corporate cultures;
an inability to achieve synergies as planned;
risks associated with the assumption of contingent or other liabilities of acquisition targets;
adverse effects on existing business relationships with suppliers or customers, including failure to retain key customers and suppliers;
failure to retain key employees of our company and of the acquired businesses;
inheriting and uncovering previously unknown issues, problems and costs from the acquired company;
delays between our expenditures to acquire new products, technologies or businesses and the generation of revenues from those acquired products, technologies or businesses;
realization of assets and settlement of liabilities at amounts equal to estimated fair value as of the acquisition date of any acquisition or disposition;
an inability to integrate information technology systems of acquired businesses in a secure and reliable manner;
costs and delays in implementing common systems and procedures (including technology, compliance programs, financial systems, distribution and general business operations, among others);
liabilities that are significantly larger than we currently anticipate and unforeseen increased expenses or delays associated with the acquisitions, including transition costs to integrate the businesses that may exceed the costs that we currently anticipate;
challenges involved with the increased scale of our operations resulting from the acquisitions; and
increased difficulties in managing our business due to the addition of international locations.
These risks may be heightened in cases where the majority of the former businesses’ operations, employees and customers are located outside the U.S. Any one or all of these factors could increase operating costs or lower anticipated financial performance. Many of these factors are also outside of our control. In addition, dispositions of certain key products, technologies and other rights, including pursuant to conditions imposed on us to obtain regulatory approvals, may affect our business operations.

In connection with the acquisition of the Codman Neurosurgery business from Johnson & Johnson, we entered into certain transition services agreements with Johnson & Johnson under which they are providing certain manufacturing, distribution and other services to the Company for up to two years following the closing. Any interruption in, or inability of Johnson & Johnson to provide, these services for any reason could have a material, adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Even if the operations of the businesses are integrated successfully, we may not realize the full benefits of the acquisition, including the synergies, cost savings or sales or growth opportunities that we expect. These benefits may not be achieved within the anticipated time frame, or at all. Additional unanticipated costs could be incurred in the integration of the businesses. All of these factors could cause a reduction to our earnings per share, decrease or delay the expected accretive effect of the transaction, and negatively impact the price of our ordinary shares.

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If any of our facilities were damaged and/or our manufacturing or business processes interrupted, we could experience lost revenues and our business could be seriously harmed.
Damage to our manufacturing, distribution, development and/or research facilities because of fire, extreme weather conditions, natural disaster, power loss, communications failure, unauthorized entry or other events, such as a flu or other health epidemic, could significantly disrupt our operations, the operations of suppliers and critical infrastructure and delay or prevent product manufacture and shipment during the time required to repair, rebuild or replace the damaged facilities. Our Añasco, Puerto Rico plant, where we manufacture collagen, silicone and our private-label products, is vulnerable to hurricane, storm, earthquake and wind damage. In September 2017, Hurricane Maria caused catastrophic damage and disruption to the infrastructure in Puerto Rico, including power, communications, water supply and transportation and to the operations of suppliers and service providers, some of which persists or has not been restored fully. While our Añasco plant sustained relatively minor damage from the impact of this hurricane and is fully operational, our ability to maintain sustainable operations at our Añasco plant depends on the restoration and reliability of the infrastructure and other essential services in Puerto Rico. In preparation for potential power outages, we have invested in diesel-powered generators at this plant to mitigate our exposure. Until such infrastructure and essential services are fully restored, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to sustain operations at full capacity at our Añasco plant. Our Plainsboro, New Jersey facility is vulnerable to hurricane damage. While we believe that our exposure to significant losses from such circumstances could be partially mitigated by our ability to manufacture, store, and distribute some of our products at other facilities, the losses could have a material, adverse effect on our business for an undetermined period of time before the transition is complete and operations resume without significant disruption. Although we maintain property damage and business interruption insurance coverage on these facilities, our insurance might not cover all losses under such circumstances, and we may not be able to renew or obtain such insurance in the future on acceptable terms with adequate coverage or at reasonable costs.
In addition, certain of our surgical instruments have some manufacturing processes performed by third parties in Pakistan, and we purchase a much smaller amount of instruments directly from vendors there. Pakistan is subject to political instability and unrest. Such instability could interrupt our ability to sell surgical instruments to our customers and could have a material, adverse effect on our revenues and earnings. While we have developed a relationship with an alternative provider of these services in another country, and continue to work to develop other providers in other countries, we cannot guarantee that we will be completely successful in establishing all of these relationships. Even if we are successful in establishing all of these alternative relationships, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so at the same level of costs or that we will be able to pass along additional costs to our customers.
Further, we manufacture certain products in Europe and our European headquarters is located in France, which has experienced labor strikes and acts of terrorism. Thus far, strikes and acts of terrorism have not had a material impact on our business; however, if either were to occur, there is no assurance that they would not disrupt our business, and any such disruption could have a material, adverse effect on our business.
An experienced third party hosts and maintains the enterprise business system used to support certain of our transaction processing for accounting and financial reporting, supply chain and manufacturing. Currently, we have developed a comprehensive disaster recovery plan for the Company’s infrastructure. As we have not fully tested the plan, we have adopted alternative solutions to mitigate business risk, including backup equipment, power and communications. We also implemented a comprehensive backup and recovery process for our key applications. Our global production and distribution operations are dependent on the effective management of information flow between facilities. An interruption of the support provided by our enterprise business systems could have a material, adverse effect on the business.
We may experience difficulties, delays, performance impact or unexpected costs from consolidation of facilities.
We consolidated several facilities in recent years, and may further consolidate our operations in the future in order to improve our cost structure, achieve increased operating efficiencies, and improve our competitive standing or results of operations and/or to address unfavorable economic conditions. As part of these initiatives, we may also lose favorable tax incentives or not be able to renew leases on acceptable terms. We may further reduce staff, make changes to certain capital projects, close certain production operations and abandon leases for certain facilities that will not be used in our operations. In conjunction with any actions, we will continue to make significant investments and build the framework for our future growth. We may not realize, in full or in part, the anticipated benefits and savings from these efforts because of unforeseen difficulties, delays, implementation issues or unexpected costs. If we are unable to achieve or maintain all of the resulting savings or benefits to our business or other unforeseen events occur, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.
We are exposed to a variety of risks relating to our international sales and operations, including fluctuations in exchange rates, local economic conditions and delays in collection of accounts receivable.
We generate significant revenues outside the U.S. in multiple foreign currencies, and in U.S. dollar-denominated transactions conducted with customers who generate revenue in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. For those foreign customers who purchase our products in U.S. dollars, currency fluctuations between the U.S. dollar and the currencies in which those customers do business

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may have a negative impact on the demand for our products in foreign countries where the U.S. dollar has increased in value compared to the local currency.
Since we have operations based outside the U.S. and we generate revenues and incur operating expenses in multiple foreign currencies, we experience currency exchange risk with respect to those foreign currency-denominated revenues and expenses. Our most significant currency exchange risk relates to transactions conducted in Australian dollars, British pounds, Canadian dollars, Chinese yuan, euros, Japanese yen, and Swiss francs.
We cannot predict the consolidated effects of exchange rate fluctuations upon our future operating results because of the number of currencies involved, the variability of currency exposure and the potential volatility of currency exchange rates. Although we address currency risk management through regular operating and financing activities, and, on a limited basis, through the use of derivative financial instruments, those actions may not prove to be fully effective. For a description of our use of derivative financial instruments, see Note 6, Derivative Instruments in our consolidated financial statements.
Our international operations subject us to laws regarding sanctioned countries, entities and persons, customs, import-export, laws regarding transactions in foreign countries, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and local anti-bribery and other laws regarding interactions with healthcare professionals, and product registration requirements. Among other things, these laws restrict, and in some cases prevent, U.S. companies from directly or indirectly selling goods, technology or services to people or entities in certain countries. In addition, these laws require that we exercise care in structuring our sales and marketing practices and effecting product registrations in foreign countries.
On June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom (U.K.) held a referendum in which voters approved an exit from the E.U., commonly referred to as “Brexit.” As a result of the referendum, the British government began negotiating the terms of the U.K.’s future relationship with the EU. Although it is unknown what those terms will be, it is possible that there will be greater restrictions on imports and exports between the U.K. and EU. countries and increased regulatory complexities. Similarly, from time to time proposals are made in the U.S. to significantly change existing trade agreements and relationships between the U.S. and other countries, although we cannot currently predict whether or how these changes will be implemented. Changes to trade policy could materially and adversely affect our operations and financial results.
Local economic conditions, legal, regulatory or political considerations, disruptions from strikes, the effectiveness of our sales representatives and distributors, local competition, in-country reimbursement methodologies and changes in local medical practice could also affect our sales to foreign markets. Relationships with customers and effective terms of sale frequently vary by country, often with longer-term receivables than are typical in the U.S.
Oversight of the medical device industry might affect the manner in which we may sell medical devices and compete in the marketplace.
There are laws and regulations that govern the means by which companies in the healthcare industry may market their products to healthcare professionals and may compete by discounting the prices of their products, including for example, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the federal False Claims Act, the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, state law equivalents to these federal laws that are meant to protect against fraud and abuse and analogous laws in foreign countries. Violations of these laws are punishable by criminal and civil sanctions, including, but not limited to, in some instances civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, exclusion from participation in federal and state healthcare programs, including Medicare and Medicaid. Although we exercise care in structuring our sales and marketing practices and customer discount arrangements to comply with those laws and regulations, we cannot assure that:

government officials charged with responsibility for enforcing those laws will not assert that our sales and marketing practices or customer discount arrangements are in violation of those laws or regulations; or
government regulators or courts will interpret those laws or regulations in a manner consistent with our interpretation.

Correspondingly, federal and state laws are also sometimes open to interpretation, and from time to time we may find ourselves at a competitive disadvantage if our interpretation differs from that of our competitors. AdvaMed (for the U.S. and China), MedTech Europe (Europe), Mecomed (Middle East), and APACMed (Asia Pacific), some of the principal trade associations for the medical device industry, promulgate model codes of ethics that set forth standards by which its members should (and non-member companies may) abide in the promotion of their products. We have in place policies and procedures for compliance that we believe are at least as stringent as those set forth in the AdvaMed Code, and we regularly train our sales and marketing personnel on our policies regarding sales and marketing practices. Pursuant to the AdvaMed Code, we have certified our adoption of the AdvaMed Code. Nevertheless, the sales and marketing practices of our industry have been the subject of increased scrutiny from federal and state government agencies, and we believe that this trend will continue. Various hospital organizations, medical societies and trade associations are establishing their own practices that may require detailed disclosures of relationships between healthcare professionals and medical device companies or ban or restrict certain marketing and sales practices such as gifts and business meals.

25


Our private-label product lines depend significantly on key relationships with third parties, which we could be unable to establish and maintain.
Our private-label business depends in part on our entering into and maintaining long-term supply agreements with third parties. The third parties with whom we have entered into agreements might terminate these agreements for a variety of reasons, including developing other sources for the products that we supply. Termination of our most important relationships could adversely affect our expectations for the growth of private-label products.
We may have significant product liability exposure and our insurance may not cover all potential claims.
We are exposed to product liability and other claims if our technologies or products are alleged to have caused harm. We may not be able to obtain insurance for the potential liability on acceptable terms with adequate coverage or at reasonable costs. Any potential product liability claims could exceed the amount of our insurance coverage or may be excluded from coverage under the terms of the policy. Our insurance may not be renewed at a cost and level of coverage comparable to that then in effect.
We are subject to requirements relating to hazardous materials which may impose significant compliance or other costs on us.
Our manufacturing, product development, research, and development operations and processes involve the controlled use of certain hazardous materials. In addition, we own and/or lease a number of facilities at which hazardous materials have been used in the past. Finally, we have acquired various companies that historically have used certain hazardous materials and that have owned and/or leased facilities at which hazardous materials have been used. For all of these reasons, we are subject to federal, state, foreign, and local laws and regulations governing the use, manufacture, storage, transportation, handling, treatment, remediation, and disposal of hazardous materials and certain waste products (“Environmental, Health, Safety and Transportation Laws”). Although we believe that our procedures for handling, transporting, and disposing of hazardous materials comply with the Environmental, Health, Safety and Transportation Laws, the Environmental Health, Safety and Transportation Laws may be amended in ways that increase our cost of compliance, perhaps materially.
 
Furthermore, the potential risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials cannot be eliminated, and there is also a risk that such contamination previously has occurred in connection with one of our facilities or in connection with one of the companies we have purchased. In the event of such an accident or contamination, we could be held liable for any damages that result and any related liability could exceed the limits or fall outside the coverage of our insurance and could exceed our resources. We may not be able to maintain insurance on acceptable terms or at all.

Cyber attacks or other disruptions to our information technology systems could adversely affect our business.

We are increasingly dependent on sophisticated information technology for our infrastructure and to support business decisions. As a result of technology initiatives, recently enacted regulations, changes in our system platforms and integration of new business acquisitions, we have been consolidating and integrating our systems. Our information systems require an ongoing commitment of significant resources to maintain, protect, and enhance existing systems and develop new systems to keep pace with continuing changes in information processing technology, evolving systems and regulatory standards, the increasing need to protect patient and customer information, and changing customer patterns. Any significant breakdown, intrusion, interruption, corruption, or destruction of these systems, as well as any data breaches, could have a material, adverse effect on our business.

In addition, third parties may attempt to breach our systems and may obtain data relating to patients, the Company’s proprietary information, or other sensitive data. If we fail to maintain or protect our information systems and data integrity effectively, we could lose existing customers, have difficulty attracting new customers, suffer backlash from negative public relations, have problems in determining product cost estimates and establishing appropriate pricing, have difficulty preventing, detecting, and controlling fraud, have disputes with customers, physicians, and other health care professionals, have regulatory sanctions or penalties imposed, have increases in operating expenses, incur expenses or lose revenues as a result of a data privacy breach, or suffer other adverse consequences.

We have programs, processes and technologies in place to prevent, detect, contain, respond to and mitigate security related threats and potential incidents. We undertake considerable ongoing improvements to our systems, connected devices and information-sharing products in order to minimize vulnerabilities, in accordance with industry and regulatory standards. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access change frequently and can be difficult to detect, anticipating, identifying or preventing these intrusions or mitigating them if and when they occur, may be challenging.

We also rely on third party vendors to supply and/or support certain aspects of our information technology systems. Third party systems may contain defects in design or manufacture or other problems that could result in system disruption or unexpectedly

26


compromise the information security of our own systems, and we are dependent on these third parties to provide reliable systems and software and to deploy appropriate security programs to protect their systems.

In addition, we continue to grow in part through new business acquisitions. As a result of acquisitions, we may face risks due to implementation, modification, or remediation of controls, procedures, and policies relating to data privacy and cybersecurity at the acquired business. We continue to consolidate and integrate the number of systems we operate, and to upgrade and expand our information system capabilities for stable and secure business operations.

If we are unable to maintain reliable information technology systems and prevent disruptions, outages, or data breaches, we may suffer regulatory consequences in addition to business consequences. Our worldwide operations mean that we are subject to laws and regulations, including data protection and cyber security laws and regulations, in many jurisdictions. The variety of U.S. and international privacy and cybersecurity laws and regulations impacting our operations are described in “Item 1. Business - Government Regulation - Other Factors - Data Privacy and Cybersecurity Laws and Regulations." We have programs to ensure compliance with such laws and regulations. However, there is no guarantee that we will avoid enforcement actions by governmental bodies. Enforcement actions may be costly and interrupt regular operations of our business. In addition, there has been a developing trend of civil lawsuits and class actions relating to breaches of consumer data held by large companies or incidents arising from other cyber attacks. While Integra has not been named in any such suits, if a substantial breach or loss of data were to occur, we could become a target of such litigation.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
As of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we had no unresolved comments from the staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission that were received not less than 180 days before the end of our 2017 fiscal year.
ITEM 2.
PROPERTIES
Our principal executive offices are located in Plainsboro, New Jersey. Our principal manufacturing and research facilities are located in New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Tennessee, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Switzerland, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. Our instrument procurement operations are located in Germany. Our primary distribution centers are located in Nevada, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Missouri, Australia, Belgium, Canada and France. In addition, we lease several smaller facilities to support additional administrative, assembly, and distribution operations. Third parties own and operate the facilities in Nevada, Missouri and Belgium. We own our facilities in Biot, France, Saint Aubin Le Monial, France, Rietheim-Weilheim, Germany and certain facilities in Ohio and Pennsylvania, and we lease all of our other facilities. We also have repair centers in California, Massachusetts, Ohio, Australia and Germany.
Our manufacturing facilities are registered with the FDA. Our facilities are subject to FDA inspection to ensure compliance with Quality System regulations. For further information regarding the status of FDA inspections, see the "Government Regulation" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Update on Remediation Activities" sections in this Form 10-K.
ITEM 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Various lawsuits, claims and proceedings are pending or have been settled by us; the most significant of which are described below.

The Company is subject to various claims, lawsuits and proceedings in the ordinary course of the Company's business, including claims by current or former employees, distributors and competitors and with respect to its products and product liability claims, lawsuits and proceedings, some of which have been settled by the Company. In the opinion of management, such claims are either adequately covered by insurance or otherwise indemnified, or are not expected, individually or in the aggregate, to result in a material, adverse effect on our financial condition. However, it is possible that the Company's results of operations, financial position and cash flows in a particular period could be materially affected by these contingencies.

TEI

TEI, acquired by Integra on July 17, 2015, manufactures a bovine-derived surgical mesh product for Boston Scientific Corporation ("BSC”) and has been named as a defendant in lawsuits under a broad range of products liability theories, many of which have not been served on TEI. As of December 31, 2017, only ten cases remained against TEI. Pursuant to an indemnification agreement with BSC (i) BSC is managing the litigation; (ii) TEI has in place a products liability insurance policy, of which it must exhaust $3.0 million before BSC’s indemnity begins to cover relevant claims (and of which only a small portion has been utilized to date and against which the insurer has reserved the entire $3.0 million). Because the thrust of the products liability litigation focuses

27


on synthetic surgical mesh products, counsel is filing motions to dismiss on behalf of TEI in many cases. In addition, Integra has certain protections in the merger agreements with TEI which would indemnify the Company for up to three years after closing for losses relating to a variety of matters, including half of certain products liability claims (including those related to the product it manufactures for BSC) not covered by insurance. As of March 1, 2018, no indemnification payments were received nor owed in relation to the lawsuits for the indemnification time period.

BioD

On April 7, 2017, the Company's indirect wholly-owned subsidiary, BioD filed an action in the Superior Court of New Jersey, Chancery Division, Middlesex County seeking a declaration that the resignation of Russell Olsen, the former CEO of BioD, was “for Good Reason” (as defined in Olsen’s employment agreement); a finding that Olsen breached the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing, committed legal fraud, equitable fraud and negligent misrepresentation; and an award of damages for such actions, including a return of severance fees paid to Olsen. BioD was acquired in August 2016 by Derma Sciences, which Integra subsequently acquired in February 2017. After receiving a job offer from Integra that Olsen believed materially diminished his title and authority, on February 24, 2017 Olsen indicated his intention to terminate his position with BioD for Good Reason, as otherwise permitted by his employment agreement with BioD. Shortly thereafter, Cynthia Weatherly (as representative of the former equity owners of BioD) claimed in a letter to Derma Sciences that Olsen’s resignation was a “termination Without Cause” (as also defined in Olsen’s employment agreement), which would arguably trigger an acceleration of the earn out under a merger agreement between Derma Sciences, BioD and other parties (the "BioD Merger Agreement"), which was entered into in July 2016, and require as a result of the acceleration the payment of $26.5 million by BioD. As disclosed and described in Note 4 - Acquisition, Divestitures and Pro Forma Results to the Company's consolidated financial statements for year ended December 31, 2017, Integra assumed this contingent liability in connection with its acquisition of Derma Sciences. The action for a declaratory judgment was filed to clarify that Olsen’s termination was for Good Reason and not Without Cause. If the employment agreement was terminated for Good Reason, then the Company believes that the earn out provision under the BioD Merger Agreement should not be accelerated.

The Company accrues for loss contingencies when it is deemed probable that a loss has been incurred and that loss is estimable. The amounts accrued are based on the full amount of the estimated loss before considering insurance proceeds, and do not include an estimate for legal fees expected to be incurred in connection with the loss contingency. The Company consistently accrues legal fees expected to be incurred in connection with loss contingencies as those fees are incurred by outside counsel as a period cost.

ITEM 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.



28


PART II
ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information, Holders and Dividends
Our common stock trades on The NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “IART.” The following table lists the high and low closing sales prices for our common stock for each quarter for the last two years:
 
  
2017
 
2016
 
  
High
 
Low
 
High
 
Low
Fourth Quarter
  
$
51.77

 
$
46.22

  
$
43.22

 
$
37.89

Third Quarter (1)
  
$
55.76

 
$
47.80

  
$
43.70

 
$
39.37

Second Quarter (1)
  
$
54.54

 
$
40.86

  
$
39.89

 
$
32.58

First Quarter (1)
  
$
44.90

 
$
41.09

  
$
33.78

 
$
27.75

(1) As adjusted to give effect to the two-for-one stock split effective December 21, 2016.
We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock since our formation. Our credit facility limits the amount of dividends that we may pay. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources — Amended and Restated Senior Credit Agreement.” Any future determinations to pay cash dividends on the common stock will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition and other factors deemed relevant by the Board of Directors.
The number of stockholders of record as of February 27, 2018 was approximately 1,074, which includes stockholders whose shares were held in nominee name.
Sales of Unregistered Securities
There were no sales of unregistered securities during the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 or 2015.
Sale of Registered Securities
In August 2015, we sold 7.590 million shares of our common stock (including 990,000 shares from the exercise of the underwriters’ option for additional shares), in a registered public offering to a select group of underwriters through a Registration Statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-192079) that was declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 4, 2013. The shares of common stock were sold at a price of $30.50 per share (before underwriting discounts and commissions). The aggregate offering gross proceeds were $231.5 million. Following the sale of the common stock, the public offering terminated.
We incurred total offering costs of approximately $11.8 million, which includes the amounts paid for underwriters' discounts and commissions of 5.0%, and other offering costs. The net proceeds of the offering were $219.7 million after deducting these expenses. No offering expenses were paid directly or indirectly to any of our directors or officers (or their associates) or persons owning ten percent or more of any class of our equity securities or to any other affiliates.
We used the entire net proceeds from this offering to pay down a portion of our outstanding Senior Credit Facility balance during 2015.
The foregoing represents our best estimate of our use of proceeds for the period indicated.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On October 25, 2016, the Board of Directors terminated the previous share repurchase plan dated October 28, 2014, of up to $75.0 million of outstanding common stock set to expire at the end of 2016 and authorized a new repurchase of up to $150.0 million outstanding common stock through December 2018. Shares may be repurchased either in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions.
There have been no shares of common stock repurchased by the Company under any of these authorizations in the year ended December 31, 2017, 2016 or 2015.
See Note 7, Treasury Stock, in our consolidated financial statements for further details.


29


ITEM 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The information set forth below should be read in conjunction with “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this report. All results and data in the tables below reflect continuing operations, unless otherwise noted. As a result, the data presented below will not necessarily agree to previously issued financial statements. See Note 3, Discontinued Operations in the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 15 of this Form 10-K for additional information on discontinued operations and Note 4, Acquisitions for additional information regarding the impact of 2017, 2016 and 2015 acquisitions.
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
(In thousands, except per share data)
Operating Results:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total revenues, net
$
1,188,236

  
$
992,075

  
$
882,734

 
$
796,717

  
$
696,832

Costs and expenses
1,143,432

  
876,735

  
803,147

 
728,860

  
661,459

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating income (4)
44,804

  
115,340

  
79,587

 
67,857

  
35,373

Interest expense, net (1) (2)
(34,764
)
 
(25,779
)
 
(23,504
)
 
(21,799
)
 
(14,792
)
Other income (expense), net (7)
1,345

  
845

  
4,588

 
(492
)
 
(1,795
)
Income from continuing operations before income taxes
11,385

  
90,406

  
60,671

 
45,566

  
18,786

(Benefit from) provision for income taxes (4) (6)
(53,358
)
  
15,842

  
53,820

 
9,271

  
(3,241
)
Net income from continuing operations
$
64,743

  
$
74,564

  
$
6,851

 
$
36,295

  
$
22,027

Loss from discontinued operations (net of tax benefit)
$

 
$

 
$
(10,370
)
 
$
(2,291
)
 
$
(43,094
)
Net income (loss)
$
64,743

 
$
74,564

 
$
(3,519
)
 
$
34,004

 
$
(21,067
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diluted net income per common share from continuing operations
$
0.82

 
$
0.94

 
$
0.10

 
$
0.55

 
$
0.38

Diluted net loss per common share from discontinued operations
$

 
$

 
$
(0.15
)
 
$
(0.03
)
 
$
(0.75
)
Diluted net income (loss) per common share
$
0.82

 
$
0.94

 
$
(0.05
)
 
$
0.52

 
$
(0.37
)
Weighted average common shares outstanding for diluted net income per share
79,121

  
79,194

  
71,354

 
65,920

  
57,604


 
 
As of December 31,
 
  
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
  
(In thousands)
Financial Position:
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash, cash equivalents
  
$
174,935

 
$
102,055

 
$
48,132

 
$
71,734

 
$
120,692

Total assets (5) (8)
  
3,211,257

 
1,807,954

 
1,774,224

 
1,412,402

 
1,007,272

Short-term borrowings under the term loan of the senior credit facility
 
60,000

 

 
14,375

 
3,750

 

Long-term borrowings under the revolving portion of the senior credit facility (1)
  
1,781,142

 
665,000

 
481,875

 
413,125

 
186,875

Long-term debt (2) (5)
  

 

 
218,240

 
211,623

 
202,658

Retained earnings (4)
  
285,186

 
220,443

 
145,879

 
314,960

 
280,956

Stockholders’ equity (3)
  
962,306

 
839,667

 
751,443

 
704,322

 
666,090


(1)
For the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013, we report the borrowings outstanding under the revolving portion of our Senior Credit Facility as long-term debt as well as the 1.625% convertible senior notes due in 2016 ("2016 Convertible Notes"). We also report the term loan as long-term debt with the exception of current principal payments due within 12 months, which are classified as short-term. At December 31, 2017, we have a total of $1.9 billion outstanding under our Senior Credit Facility and $345.0 million available for future borrowings.

30


(2
)
In 2011, we issued $230.0 million of the 2016 Convertible Notes. The 2016 Convertible Notes were repaid in December 2016 in accordance with their terms.
 
 
(3
)
In 2015, we sold 7.590 million shares of our common stock at a price of $30.50 per share. The aggregate offering proceeds were $231.5 million. The net proceeds of the offering were $219.7 million after deducting the underwriters' discounts and commissions and all other estimated offering expenses.

In 2013, we sold 8.050 million shares of our common stock at a price of $20.00 per share. The aggregate gross offering proceeds were $161.0 million. The net proceeds of the offering were $152.5 million after deducting the underwriters' discounts and commissions and all other estimated offering expenses.
 
 
(4
)
In 2016. the Company elected to adopt Accounting Standard Update 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting (Topic 718). The Company elected to account for forfeitures as they occur. The impact in retained earnings as of December 31, 2015 from this provision was not significant. Amendments related to accounting for excess tax benefits have been adopted prospectively, resulting in recognition of excess tax benefits against income tax expenses rather than additional paid-in capital of $3.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2016.
 
 
(5
)
In 2016, the Company adopted Accounting Standard Update 2015-03, Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs. The Company adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2016 on a retrospective basis. The Company reclassified a portion of the debt issuance costs from other assets to long-term debt as of December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013.
 
 
(6
)
The benefit from income taxes in 2017 includes $43.4 million related to the re-measurement of our deferred taxes resulting from a reduction of the federal statutory rate from 35% to 21% from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "2017 Tax Act"), enacted in December 2017 (see Note 11, Income Taxes, of the consolidated financial statements).
 
 
(7
)
In 2017, other income (expense), net, includes gain on sale of business of $2.6 million related to the Divestiture to Natus (as defined in Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis).
 
 
(8
)
Presented for continuing operations only.

ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read together with the selected consolidated financial data and our financial statements and the related notes appearing elsewhere in this report. This discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including but not limited to those under the heading “Risk Factors.”
GENERAL
Integra is a worldwide leader in medical technology focused on limiting uncertainty for surgeons so we can concentrate on providing the best patient care. Integra provides customers with clinically relevant, innovative and cost-effective products that improve the quality of life for patients. We focus on cranial procedures, small bone and joint reconstruction, the repair and reconstruction of soft tissue, and instruments for surgery.
We manufacture and sell our products in two reportable business segments: Codman Specialty Surgical, and Orthopedics and Tissue Technologies. Our Codman Specialty Surgical products offer specialty surgical implants and instrumentation for a broad range of specialties. This product category includes products and solutions for dural access and repair, precision tools and instruments, advanced energy, CSF management and neuro monitoring including market-leading product portfolios used in neurosurgery operation suites and critical care units. Our Orthopedics and Tissue Technologies products portfolios consists of differentiated regenerative technology products for soft tissue repair and tissue regeneration products, and small bone fixation and joint replacement hardware products for both upper extremities and lower extremities. This business also includes private-label sales of a broad set of our regenerative and wound care medicine technologies.
We manufacture many of our products in plants located in the U.S., Canada, Puerto Rico, France, Germany, Ireland, Switzerland and Mexico. We also source most of our handheld surgical instruments, specialty metal and pyrocarbon implants, and dural sealant products through specialized third-party vendors.

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We have several sales channels in the U.S. Codman Specialty Surgical products are sold through a combination of directly employed sales representatives, distributors and wholesalers, depending on the customer call point. Orthopedics and Tissue Technologies products are sold through directly employed sales representatives and specialty distributors focused on their respective surgical specialties. We sell in the international markets through a combination of direct sales organizations and distributors.
We also market certain products through strategic partners in the U.S.
Our objective is to become a multi-billion dollar diversified global medical technology company that helps patients by limiting uncertainty for medical professionals, and is a high-quality investment for shareholders. We will achieve these goals by becoming a company recognized as a leader by our customers worldwide in specialty surgical applications, regenerative technologies and extremities orthopedics. Our strategy is built around four pillars: 1) building an execution-focused culture, 2) achieving relevant scale, 3) improving agility and innovation, and 4) leading in customer excellence. These four pillars support our strategic initiatives to deliver on our commitments through improved planning and communication, optimizing our infrastructure, and strategically aligned tuck-in acquisitions.
We aim to achieve growth in our revenues while maintaining strong financial results. While we pay attention to any meaningful trend in our financial results, we pay particular attention to measurements that are indicative of long-term profitable growth. These measurements include (1) revenue growth (including organic growth and growth through acquisitions), (2) gross margins on total revenues, (3) operating margins (which we aim to expand as we leverage our existing infrastructure), (4) earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization, (5) earnings per diluted share of common stock, and (6) operating cash flows.
We believe that we are particularly effective in the following aspects of our business:
Regenerative Technology Platform. We have developed numerous product lines through our proprietary collagen and polyethylene glycol technologies that we sell through every one of our sales channels.
Diversification and Platform Synergies. The selling platforms of Codman Specialty Surgical and Orthopedics and Tissue Technologies each contribute a different strength to our core business. Codman Specialty Surgical provides us with a strong presence in the hospital, with market-leading products and comprehensive solutions for surgical specialties, such as neurosurgery, as well as a strong capacity to generate cash flows. Orthopedics and Tissue Technologies enables us to grow our top line by continuing to introduce new, differentiated products in fast-growing markets, such as small joint replacement and advanced wound care, as well as to increase gross margins. We have unique synergies between these platforms, such as our regenerative technology, instrument sourcing capabilities, and enterprise contract management.
Specialized Sales Footprint. Our medical technology investment and manufacturing strategy provides us with a specialized set of customer call-points and synergies. We have market-leading products across our portfolio providing both scale and depth in solutions for a broad set of clinical needs across many departments in the healthcare system. We also have clinical expertise across all our channels in the U.S., and an opportunity to expand and leverage this expertise in markets worldwide. In response to our customers’ needs for clinical and technical solutions across multiple departments and clinical areas, we have developed and deployed our enterprise selling team to bring unique clinical solutions for the most difficult healthcare issues in our key accounts across multiple clinical sites and multi-hospital integrated delivery networks.
Ability to Change and Adapt. Our corporate culture is what enables us to adapt and evolve. We have demonstrated that we can quickly and profitably integrate new products and businesses. This core strength has made it possible for us to grow over the years, and is key to our ability to grow into a multi-billion dollar company.
Clinical and Product Development Activities

We continue to invest in collecting clinical evidence to support our existing products and new product launches, and to ensure that we obtain market access for broader and more cost-effective solutions. In 2017, we introduced seven new regenerative technology products, including new sizes of PriMatrix® and OmniGraft®, and our largest electromechanical product, the CUSA® Clarity. We continue to work on advanced shoulder products and are developing a pyrocarbon hemi-shoulder product to add to our orthopedic reconstruction portfolio. In our electromechanical technologies portfolio, we are focused on the development of core clinical applications in CSF management, neuro monitoring, electro surgery and ultrasonic medical technologies. We also work with several instrument partners to bring new surgical instrument patterns to the market, enabling us to add new instruments with minimal expense and invest in ongoing development, such as in LED technology.

More importantly, with our recent acquisition activities and the integration of all the different research and development teams, we now have opportunities to combine multiple technology platforms to develop new, game-changing products for customers and patients.

32


FDA Untitled Letter
On June 22, 2015, the FDA issued an Untitled Letter (the "Untitled Letter") alleging that BioD LLC's ("BioD") morselized amniotic membrane tissue based products do not meet the criteria for regulation as HCT/Ps solely under Section 361 of the Public Health Services Act ("Section 361") and that, as a result, BioD would need a biologics license to lawfully market those morselized products. Since the issuance of the Untitled Letter, BioD and more recently the Company have been in discussions with the FDA to communicate their disagreement with the FDA’s assertion that certain products are more than minimally manipulated. The FDA has not changed its position that certain of the BioD acquired products are not eligible for marketing solely under Section 361.
In November 2017, the FDA issued the final guidance document related to human tissue titled, “Regulatory Considerations for Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products: Minimal Manipulation and Homologous Use” (the “HCT/P Final Guidance”). The HCT/P Final Guidance maintains the FDA’s position that products such as the Company’s morselized amniotic membrane tissue-based products do not meet the criteria for regulation solely as HCT/Ps. In addition, the FDA articulated a risk-based approach to enforcement and, while some uses for amniotic membrane tissue based products would enjoy as much as thirty-six months of enforcement discretion, other high risk uses could be subject to immediate enforcement action. The Company does not believe the uses for its amniotic membrane tissue based products fall into the high risk category. Nonetheless, we can make no assurances that the FDA will continue to exercise its enforcement discretion with respect to the Company’s amniotic membrane tissue-based products, and any potential action of the FDA could have a financial impact regarding the sales of such products. Although the Company continues to disagree with the FDA’s position, the Company has been considering and continues to consider regulatory approval pathways for its amniotic membrane tissue based products.
Revenues from BioD morselized amniotic membrane based products for the year ended December 31, 2017 were less than 1.0% of consolidated revenues.
ACQUISITIONS
A part of our growth strategy includes the acquisition of businesses, assets or products lines to increase the breadth and reach of our product portfolios and drive relevant scale to our customers. As a result of several recent acquisitions, our financial results for the year ended December 31, 2017 may not be directly comparable to those of the corresponding prior-year periods. See Note 4, Acquisitions Divestitures and Pro Forma Results to our consolidated financial statements for a further discussion.
From January 2015 through December 2017, we acquired the following businesses, assets and product lines:
Johnson & Johnson's Codman Neurosurgery Business
On May 11, 2017, the Company entered into an asset purchase agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with DePuy Synthes, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“DePuy Synthes”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, pursuant to which the Company agreed to acquire certain assets, and assume certain liabilities, of Johnson & Johnson’s Codman neurosurgery business (the “Codman Acquisition”). The assets and liabilities subject to the Codman Acquisition relate to the research, development, manufacturing, marketing, distribution and sale of certain products used in connection with neurosurgery procedures.
On October 2, 2017, based upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Purchase Agreement, the Codman Acquisition was completed. Under the terms of the Purchase Agreement, the Company paid an aggregate purchase price of $1.014 billion, subject to adjustments set forth in the Purchase Agreement relating to the book value of inventory transferred to us at the closing of the Codman Acquisition, the book value of certain inventory retained by DePuy Synthes that will be transferred to the Company in the future along with certain prepaid taxes.
To facilitate the completion of the Codman Acquisition, the Company drew $326.4 million from the revolving component of the Senior Credit Facility on September 29, 2017 and $700.0 million from the Term Loan A-1 component of the Senior Credit Facility on October 2, 2017.
TGX Medical
On April 4, 2017, the Company entered into a Membership Interest Purchase Agreement (the "Purchase Agreement"), by and among the Company, MCF I LP THX Medical System LLC Holdings, Inc., Terragraphix, Inc. and TGX Medical Systems, LLC (collectively, "TGX Medical"). Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, the Company purchased all issued and outstanding membership interests in TGX Medical for $5.4 million.
TGX Medical designs, develops and markets software solutions that track surgical instruments from the operating room, sterilization, to storage, which helps ensure that the instruments have been properly cleaned, assembled and maintained. TGX Medical’s customers are located in the U.S. and Canada.
Derma Sciences
On February 24, 2017, the Company executed the Agreement and Plan of Merger (the "Merger Agreement") under which the Company acquired all the outstanding shares of Derma Sciences, Inc., a Delaware corporation ("Derma Sciences") for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $210.8 million including payment of certain of Derma Sciences' closing expenses and settlement

33


of stock-based compensation plans of $4.8 million and $4.3 million, respectively. The purchase price consisted of a cash payment to the former shareholders of Derma Sciences of approximately $201.7 million upon the closing of the transaction.
Derma Sciences is a tissue regeneration company focused on advanced wound and burn care that offers products to help manage chronic and hard-to-heal wounds, especially those resulting from diabetes and poor vascular functioning.
Tekmed
In December 2015, we acquired the assets of Tekmed Instruments S.p.A ("Tekmed") for $14.1 million in cash. Tekmed was a distributor of our products in Italy and has a specialty focus on neurosurgery and neurotrauma, along with representation in plastic and reconstructive surgery, cardiovascular surgery, image diagnostics, general surgery, anesthesia and intensive care, interventional radiology, and proton therapy. This acquisition enables us to support Codman Specialty Surgical growth in Italy along with other key Integra franchises.  
Tornier's U.S. Toe & Ankle Business
In October 2015, we acquired the U.S. rights to Tornier's Salto Talaris and Salto Talaris XT ankle replacement products and Tornier's FuturaTM silastic toe replacement products for $6.0 million in cash. The acquired toe and ankle products ("Salto and Futura") enhance our lower extremities product offering and accelerates our entry into the U.S. total ankle replacement market. Under the agreement, Integra acquired the U.S. rights to the Salto Talaris Total Ankle Prosthesis, Salto Talaris XT Revision Total Ankle Prosthesis, Futura Primus Flexible Great Toe system, Futura Classic Flexible Great Toe system, and Futura Lesser Metatarsal Phalangeal system. The agreement also includes an option to purchase, in the future, the rights to the Salto Talaris, Salto Talaris XT, Salto Mobile, and Futura silastic toe replacement products outside the U.S.
TEI
In July 2015, we executed the two merger agreements (collectively, the "Agreements") under which we acquired TEI Biosciences, Inc., a Delaware corporation ("TEI Bio"), and TEI Medical Inc., a Delaware corporation ("TEI Med") for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $312.2 million after working capital adjustment. TEI Bio is in the business of developing and commercializing biologic devices for soft tissue repair and regenerative applications, including dura and hernia repair and plastic and reconstructive surgery. TEI Med holds a license to TEI Bio’s regenerative technology in the fields of wound healing and orthopedics.
DIVESTITURES
On September 8, 2017, the Company and certain of its subsidiaries entered into an asset purchase agreement (the “Divestiture Agreement”) with Natus Medical Incorporated (“Natus”), pursuant to which the Company agreed to divest its Camino Intracranial Pressure monitoring and the U.S. rights to the fixed pressure shunts businesses together with certain of the neurosurgery assets related to the Codman U.S. rights to the dural graft implant, external ventricular drainage catheter and cerebrospinal fluid collection systems businesses that were acquired as part of the Codman Acquisition (the “Divestiture”). The Divestiture Agreement was entered in connection with the review of the Codman Acquisition by the Federal Trade Commission and the antitrust authority of Spain. The Divestiture was conditioned upon completion of the Codman Acquisition.
On October 6, 2017, upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Divestiture Agreement (see Note 4 - Acquisition, Divestitures and Pro Forma Results), the Divestiture was completed and Natus paid an aggregate purchase price of $46.4 million.

OPTIMIZATION AND INTEGRATION ACTIVITIES
As a result of our ongoing acquisition strategy and significant growth in recent years, we have undertaken cost-saving initiatives to consolidate manufacturing operations, distribution facilities and transfer activities, implement a common ERP system, eliminate duplicative positions, realign various sales and marketing activities, and expand and upgrade production capacity for our regenerative technology products. These efforts are expected to continue and while we expect a positive impact from ongoing restructuring, integration, and manufacturing transfer and expansion activities, such results remain uncertain.


34


RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Executive Summary

Our net income from continuing operations in 2017 was $64.7 million, or $0.82 per diluted share, as compared to $74.6 million, or $0.94 per diluted share in 2016, and $6.9 million, or $0.10 per diluted share, in 2015.
Revenues from 2015 to 2017 increased $305.5 million, generating $196.5 million of additional gross margin over that time period resulting primarily from the businesses that we acquired and strong organic growth. Costs and expenses increased sequentially as new employees, especially in selling, general and administrative functions, joined the Company, and from the higher operating expenses associated with the businesses we acquired.
The benefit from income taxes in 2017 was primarily driven by a re-measurement of our deferred taxes resulting from a reduction of the federal statutory rate from 35% to 21% from the 2017 Tax Act and a decrease in income before income taxes in 2017 resulting from acquisition and integration costs related to the Derma Sciences and Codman Neurosurgery acquisitions.
Special Charges
Income before taxes includes the following special charges: 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
(In thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Acquisition-related charges (1)
$
117,947

 
$
18,898

 
$
15,703

Global ERP implementation charges
2,780

 
15,585

 
16,375

Structural optimization charges
7,336

 
7,794

 
16,752

Certain employee termination charges
125

 
1,446

 
2,642

Discontinued product lines charges
1,156

 

 

Spine spin-off charges

 

 
3,801

Convertible debt non-cash interest

 
8,075

 
7,871

Hurricane Maria charges
2,758

 

 

Total
$
132,102

 
$
51,798

 
$
63,144


(1)
The amounts have been reduced by $2.6 million in 2017, representing gain on sale of business to Natus. See Note 4, Acquisitions, Divestiture and Pro Forma Result, of our consolidated financial statements for more information.

The items reported above are reflected in the consolidated statements of operations as follows:
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
(In thousands)
Cost of goods sold
$
25,123

 
$
18,869

 
$
17,421

Research and development

 
200

 
580

Selling, general and administrative
107,361

 
24,654

 
38,761

Interest expense

 
8,075

 
7,871

Other income
(382
)
 

 
(1,489
)
Total
$
132,102

 
$
51,798

 
$
63,144


We typically define special charges as items for which the amounts and/or timing of such expenses may vary significantly from period to period, depending upon our acquisition, integration and restructuring activities, and for which the amounts are non-cash in nature, or for which the amounts are not expected to recur at the same magnitude. We believe that given our ongoing strategy of seeking acquisitions, our continuing focus on rationalizing our existing manufacturing and distribution infrastructure and our continuing review of various product lines in relation to our current business strategy, some of the special charges discussed above could recur with similar materiality in the future. In 2010, we began investing significant resources in the global implementation

35


of a single enterprise resource planning ("ERP") system. We began capitalizing certain costs for the project starting in 2011 and continued to do so during 2017. We expect additional capital and integration expenses in 2018 associated with the integration of Codman Neurosurgery. In September 2017, Hurricane Maria caused disruption and minor damage to our operations in our facility in Añasco, Puerto Rico. We incurred $2.8 million in expenses to restore the facility to its normal operations.
We believe that the separate identification of these special charges provides important supplemental information to investors regarding financial and business trends relating to our financial condition and results of operations. Investors may find this information useful in assessing comparability of our operating performance from period to period, against the business model objectives that management has established, and against other companies in our industry. We provide this information to investors so that they can analyze our operating results in the same way that management does and to use this information in their assessment of our core business and valuation of Integra.
Update on Remediation Activities
We had an FDA warning letter related to TEI, acquired by Integra on July 17, 2015. TEI received a Warning Letter from the FDA dated May 29, 2015 for promoting the product SurgiMend for breast surgery applications that were not cleared in the 510(k) process and do not have a PMA approval for the indication. The FDA requested that TEI immediately cease all activities that resulted in misbranding or adulteration of the product in commercial distribution. The FDA also required TEI to cease all violations regarding promotion of the product for an indication that was not cleared or approved. TEI responded to the FDA with a corrective action plan and took action to address the issues prior to the completion of the acquisition. The FDA warning letter was lifted on August 31, 2017.
Revenues and Gross Margin
Our revenues and gross margin on product revenues were as follows:
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Segment Net Sales
(In thousands)
Codman Specialty Surgical
$
720,301

 
$
632,524

 
$
586,918

Orthopedics and Tissue Technologies
467,935

 
359,551

 
295,816

Total revenues
1,188,236

 
992,075

 
882,734

Cost of goods sold
435,511

 
349,089

 
326,542

Gross margin on total revenues
$
752,725

 
$
642,986

 
$
556,192

Gross margin as a percentage of total revenues
63.3
%
 
64.8
%
 
63.0
%
Revenues
Year Ended December 31, 2017 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2016.
For the year ended December 31, 2017, total revenues increased by $196.2 million, or 20%, to $1,188.2 million from $992.1 million during the prior year. Domestic revenues increased $128.7 million, or 17%, to $894.3 million and were 75% of total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2017. International revenues increased to $293.9 million, compared to $226.5 million during 2016. Foreign exchange fluctuations had a positive impact of $2.4 million on revenues for the year.
Codman Specialty Surgical revenues were $720.3 million, an increase of 14% from the prior year. The increase resulted from growth across all franchises and one quarter of revenues from Codman Neurosurgery of $76.9 million.
Orthopedics and Tissue Technologies revenues were $467.9 million, an increase of 30% from the prior year. The increase largely resulted from the impact of the 2017 acquisition of Derma Sciences, which added $84.6 million incremental revenue in the period. We also saw increases in our regenerative products, extremities and private label portfolios driven by strong demand for our skin products and continued relationships with existing private label customers.
With our global reach, we generate revenues in multiple foreign currencies. Accordingly, we will experience currency exchange risk with respect to those foreign currency denominated revenues.

36


Year Ended December 31, 2016 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2015.
For the year ended December 31, 2016, total revenues increased by $109.3 million or 12% to $992.1 million from $882.7 million during 2015. Domestic revenues increased 12% to $765.6 million and were 77% of total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2016. International revenues increased to $226.5 million compared to $201.9 million during 2015. Foreign exchange fluctuations had a negative impact of $2.7 million on revenues for the year.
Codman Specialty Surgical revenues were $632.5 million, an increase of 8% from the prior year. The increase resulted from growth across all franchises, with the majority of the increases in our dural access and repair, domestic precision tools and instruments and international advanced energy franchises.
Orthopedics and Tissue Technologies revenues were $359.6 million, an increase of 22% from the prior year. The increase largely resulted from the impact of the 2015 acquisitions of TEI and the Salto ankle and Futura products, which added $37.5 million incremental revenue in the period due to the inclusion of a full year's activity. We also saw increases in our regenerative products, upper extremities and private label portfolios, driven by strong demand for our skin products and additional relationships with existing private label customers.
With our global reach, we generate revenues in multiple foreign currencies. Accordingly, we experience currency exchange risk with respect to those foreign currency denominated revenues.
Gross Margin
Gross margin as a percentage of revenues was 63.3% in 2017, 64.8% in 2016, and 63.0% in 2015. The decrease in gross margin percentage of total revenue from 2016 to 2017 resulted primarily from dilution related to product sales from the Derma Sciences and Codman Neurosurgery acquisitions at lower margins than the Company's average.  Additionally, there were higher net costs associated with fair value inventory purchase accounting adjustments and amortization for technology-based intangible assets inclusive of impairments recorded in connection with the acquisitions.
The increase in gross margin percentage from 2015 to 2016 resulted primarily from an increase in sales of higher margin products such as DuraSeal, DuraGen, skin and wound products, higher private label royalties, the leveraging of our existing manufacturing infrastructure, and the addition of higher margin products from the TEI acquisition.
We expect our consolidated gross margin percentage for the full year 2018 to be approximately 62% to 63% in line with 2017.
Other Operating Expenses
The following is a summary of other operating expenses as a percent of total revenues: 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2017

2016
 
2015
Research and development
5.3
%

5.9
%
 
5.8
%
Selling, general and administrative
52.5
%

45.9
%
 
47.1
%
Intangible asset amortization
1.7
%

1.4
%
 
1.1
%

Total operating expenses, which consist of research and development expenses, selling, general and administrative expenses, and intangible asset amortization expense, increased $180.3 million or 34% to $707.9 million in 2017, compared to $527.6 million in the prior year.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. Research and development totaled $63.5 million in 2017, compared to $58.2 million in 2016 and $50.9 million in 2015. Similar to the prior year, the increase in research and development costs from 2016 to 2017 primarily resulted from the acquisition of Derma Sciences and Codman Neurosurgery and additional spending on new product development and clinical studies.
We are continuing to invest in clinical studies and product development, and expect an increase in our research and development expenses in 2018 to be approximately 6.0% of total revenues.
SELLING, GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE. Selling, general and administrative expenses in the year ended December 31, 2017 increased by $168.5 million or 37.0% to $624.1 million, compared to $455.6 million in the same period in the prior year. Selling and marketing expenses increased by $63.9 million, primarily resulting from the Derma Sciences and Codman Neurosurgery acquisitions, higher headcount in our sales force compared to the prior year, and higher commission costs resulting from increases in revenue. General and administrative costs increased by $104.6 million, primarily resulting from the costs related to acquiring and integrating the Derma Sciences and Codman Neurosurgery businesses and increased compensation costs.
Selling, general and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2016 increased by $39.9 million or 9.6% to $455.6 million, compared to $415.8 million in 2015. Selling and marketing expenses increased by $54.4 million, primarily resulting from

37


the full-year impact of the TEI acquisition, higher headcount in our sales force compared to the prior year, and higher commission costs resulting from increases in revenue. General and administrative costs decreased $14.5 million, primarily due to the suspension of the Medical Device Excise Tax and reduction in transaction-related costs both to affect the spin-off of our Spine business, and to close the TEI and Salto acquisitions, which more than offset higher incentive compensation costs arising from the improved performance of the business.
For 2018, we expect our reported selling, general, and administrative expenses to be approximately 47% to 48% of revenue.
INTANGIBLE ASSET AMORTIZATION.
Amortization expense (excluding amounts reported in cost of product revenues for technology-based intangible assets) in the year ended December 31, 2017 was $20.4 million, compared to $13.9 million in 2016. The increase primarily resulted from amortization on the intangible assets added as part of our Derma Sciences acquisition.
In 2016, amortization expense (excluding amounts reported in cost of product revenues for technology-based intangible assets) in the year ended December 31, 2016 was $13.9 million, compared to $10.0 million in 2015. The increase primarily resulted from a full year of amortization on the intangible assets added as part of our TEI, Salto, and Tekmed acquisitions in 2015.
We may discontinue certain products in the future as we continue to assess the profitability of our product lines. As our profitability assessment evolves, we may make further decisions about our trade names and incur additional impairment charges or accelerated amortization. We expect total annual amortization expense (including amounts reported in cost of product revenues, but excluding any possible future amortization associated with acquired in-process research and development ("IPR&D")) to be approximately $66.9 million in 2018, $66.8 million in 2019, $66.7 million in 2020, $65.7 million in 2021 and $721.0 million in 2022 and thereafter.
Non-Operating Income and Expenses
The following is a summary of non-operating income and expenses:
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
(In thousands)
Interest income
$
255

 
$
24

 
$
30

Interest expense
(35,019
)
 
(25,803
)
 
(23,534
)
Other income (expense)
1,345

 
845

 
4,588

Total non-operating income and expense
$
(33,419
)
 
$
(24,934
)
 
$
(18,916
)

Interest Income and Interest Expense
Interest income on our invested cash was $0.3 million in 2017 and minimal in 2016 and 2015.
Interest expense was $35.0 million, $25.8 million and $23.5 million in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. Interest expense increased in 2017 as compared to 2016 and 2015 primarily because of increased borrowings under our Senior Credit facility to fund the acquisitions of Derma Sciences and Codman Neurosurgery. In December 2016, we expensed $0.5 million of previously capitalized deferred financing costs in connection with the refinancing of our Senior Credit Facility. No deferred financing costs were written-off in 2017.
Our reported interest expense for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 includes non-cash interest related to the accounting for convertible securities of $8.1 million and $7.9 million, respectively. The expense was associated primarily with the principal amount of the outstanding 2016 Convertible Notes, and interest and fees related to our Senior Credit Facility.
Our reported interest expense for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 included $2.7 million, $2.5 million and $2.3 million, respectively, of non-cash amortization of debt issuance costs.
Other Income, Net
Other income of $1.3 million in 2017 was composed of a $2.6 million gain from the Divestiture of certain neurosurgical products to Natus, $1.6 million in income from a transition services agreement with Natus and a $1.9 million gain from cross-currency rate swaps, offset by a $2.2 million loss on sales of short-term investments acquired from Derma Sciences and transactional foreign exchange losses of $2.9 million.
In 2016, other income of $0.8 million was primarily attributable to the impact of transactional foreign exchange gains and losses and income from the transition services agreement entered into with SeaSpine.

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Income Taxes
Our effective income tax rate was (468.7)%, 17.5% and 88.7% of income before income taxes in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. See Note 11, “Income Taxes,” in our consolidated financial statements for a reconciliation of the United States federal statutory rate to our effective tax rate.
The 2017 Tax Act included numerous changes to existing U.S. tax laws that will impact the Company. The most notable change was a reduction in the federal statutory tax rate from 35% to 21%. In 2017, the lower effective tax rate was primarily driven by a tax benefit of $43.4 million as a result of the re-measurement of deferred taxes using this reduced federal tax rate. In addition, the Company's income before taxes decreased in 2017 compared to 2016, primarily resulting from the acquisition and integration costs related to the 2017 acquisitions of Derma Sciences and Codman Neurosurgery.
In 2016, our lower worldwide effective tax rate, as compared to 2015, was primarily attributable to an excess tax benefit of $3.8 million as a result of early adoption of the new share-based compensation accounting guidance (ASU 2016-09), a favorable jurisdictional income mix, significantly lower non-deductible acquisition costs versus the prior year, and a benefit of $0.5 million for a Federal research credit study.
In 2015, the increase in worldwide effective tax rate, as compared to 2014, was primarily attributable to the Company's recognizing income tax expense of $37.2 million relating to a tax valuation allowance recorded in continuing operations as a result of the spin-off of the spine business. The Company determined that upon the spin-off, the deferred tax assets of the spine business would be unrealizable. The increase was also due to a shift in the jurisdictional mix of earnings in the current year.
Our effective tax rate could vary from year to year depending on, among other factors, tax law changes, the geographic and business mix and taxable earnings and losses. We consider these factors and others, including our history of generating taxable earnings, in assessing our ability to realize deferred tax assets. We estimate the range of our worldwide effective income tax rate for 2018 to be approximately 8.0% to 10.0%.
We recorded a cumulative valuation allowance of $8.0 million against the remaining $96.5 million of gross deferred tax assets recorded at December 31, 2017. Our deferred tax asset valuation allowance increased by $4.4 million in 2017 and decreased by $1.3 million in 2016. This valuation allowance relates to deferred tax assets for which the Company does not believe it has satisfied the more likely than not threshold for realization. The increase in valuation allowance in 2017 primarily results from certain deferred tax assets related to acquisition of Derma Sciences, which we do not expect to realize. If we determine that we would be able to realize more or less than the recorded amount of net deferred tax assets, we will record an adjustment to the deferred tax asset valuation allowance in the period such a determination is made.
At December 31, 2017, we had net operating loss carryforwards of $148.2 million for federal income tax purposes, $26.4 million for foreign income tax purposes and $28.2 million for state income tax purposes to offset future taxable income. The federal net operating loss carryforwards expire through 2033, $1.0 million of the foreign net operating loss carryforwards expire through 2025 with the remaining $25.4 million having an indefinite carry forward period. The state net operating loss carryforwards expire through 2037.
The 2017 Tax Act imposes a one-time repatriation tax on accumulated foreign subsidiaries’ untaxed foreign earnings (“Toll Tax”). As of December 31, 2017, we recorded income tax expense of approximately $5.5 million as an estimate of the Toll Tax on certain foreign earnings. The calculation of the Toll Tax allows for the ability to offset positive foreign earnings with existing foreign deficits and use of foreign tax credits.  We prepared a reasonable estimate of this tax and expect to analyze the results once we finalize our tax filings for 2017. We intend to reinvest future earnings of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries outside of the U.S. indefinitely, in order to fund our non-U.S. operations.

On December 22, 2017, the SEC staff issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 to address the application of U.S. GAAP in situations when a registrant does not have the necessary information available, prepared, or analyzed (including computations) in reasonable detail to complete the accounting for certain income tax effects of the 2017 Tax Act. The Company has recognized the provisional tax impacts related to deemed repatriated earnings and the revaluation of deferred tax assets and liabilities and included these amounts in its consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017. The ultimate impact may differ from these provisional amounts, possibly materially, due to, among other things, additional analysis, changes in interpretations and assumptions the Company has made, additional regulatory guidance that may be issued, and actions the Company may take as a result of the 2017 Tax Act.



39


GEOGRAPHIC PRODUCT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS
We attribute revenues to geographic areas based on the location of the customer. Total revenue by major geographic area consisted of the following:
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
(In thousands)
United States
$
894,260

 
$
765,608

 
$
680,824

Europe
150,147

 
120,588

 
103,057

Rest of World
143,829

 
105,879

 
98,853

Total Revenues
$
1,188,236

 
$
992,075

 
$
882,734

In 2017, sales to our U.S. customers increased 16.8% from the prior year. We saw increases in our regenerative technologies, private label, dural access and repair, advanced energy, precision tools and instruments and extremities businesses, which benefited from organic growth as well as contributions from the Derma Sciences and Codman Neurosurgery acquisitions. European sales increased 24.5% in 2017 compared to the prior year, resulting primarily from increases in sales in our Codman Specialty Surgical portfolio as well as regenerative technologies. Both areas included contributions from the Codman Neurosurgery and Derma Sciences acquisitions. Sales to customers in the Rest of the World increased approximately 35.8% for the year ended December 31, 2017, primarily driven by sales from our 2017 acquisitions of Codman Neurosurgery and Derma Sciences and growth in Codman Specialty Surgical and regenerative technologies portfolios.
In 2016, sales to our U.S. customers increased 12.5% from the prior year. We saw increases in our lower extremities, regenerative technologies, precision tools and instruments, private label and dural access and repair businesses, which benefited from organic growth as well as the full year contribution of the TEI and Salto Talaris acquisitions. These gains were offset by decreases in sales of upper extremities hardware and neuro critical care products. European sales increased 17% in 2016 compared to the prior year, resulting primarily from increases in sales in our neurosurgery portfolio, led by advanced energy, as well as revenue related to our TEI and Tekmed acquisitions. Increases in revenue were offset by foreign exchange losses due to the declining value of the euro against the U.S. dollar. Sales to customers in the Rest of the World region increased approximately 7% for the year ended December 31, 2016, primarily driven by neurosurgery sales, led by advanced energy.
With our global reach, we generate revenues and incur operating expenses in multiple foreign currencies. Accordingly, we will experience currencies exchange risk with respect to those foreign currency denominated revenues and operating expenses. The Company generated revenues denominated in foreign currencies of $185.9 million, $163.3 million and $144.5 million during the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
We will continue to assess the potential effects that changes in foreign currency exchange rates could have on our business. However, either a strengthening or a weakening of the dollar against individual foreign currencies could reduce future revenues and gross margins. If we believe this potential impact presents a significant risk to our business, we may enter into derivative financial instruments to mitigate this risk.
Additionally, we generate significant revenues outside the U.S., a portion of which are U.S. dollar-denominated transactions conducted with customers who generate revenue in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. As a result, currency fluctuations between the U.S. dollar and the currencies in which those customers do business may have an impact on the demand for our products in foreign countries.
Local economic conditions, regulatory, legal or political considerations, the effectiveness of our sales representatives and distributors, local competition and changes in local medical practice all could combine to affect our sales into markets outside the U.S.
Relationships with customers and effective terms of sale frequently vary by country, often with longer-term receivables than are typical in the U.S.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Cash and Marketable Securities
We had cash and cash equivalents totaling approximately $174.9 million and $102.1 million at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
We determined that our existing cash, future cash to be generated from operations, and our remaining $344.4 million of borrowing capacity under our senior secured revolving credit facility at December 31, 2017, if needed, will satisfy our foreseeable working

40


capital, debt repayment and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next twelve months after the date the financial statements are issued or are available to be issued.
In 2018, we anticipate that our principal uses of cash will include between $65.0 million and $75.0 million on capital expenditures primarily for the support and maintenance in our existing plants for facility automation, additions to our instrument kits used in sales of orthopedic products and development of our new Mansfield, Massachusetts facility, which will be used to manufacture products acquired as part of the Codman Neurosurgery transaction.
At December 31, 2017, our non-U.S. subsidiaries held approximately $130.6 million of cash and cash equivalents that are available for use by all of our operations around the world. The 2017 Tax Act imposes a Toll Tax of 15.5% on cash and cash equivalents and 8.0% on all foreign earnings related to the deemed repatriation of undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries. An income tax expense of approximately $5.5 million was computed as a Toll Tax on certain foreign earnings. We intend to indefinitely reinvest future earnings of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries outside of the U.S., in order to provide for our non-U.S. operations.
Cash Flows 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
(In thousands)
Net cash provided by operating activities
$
114,544

 
$
116,405

Net cash used in investing activities
(1,221,335
)
 
(42,622
)
Net cash provided (used in) by financing activities
1,168,947

 
(15,116
)
Effect of exchange rate fluctuations on cash
10,724

 
(4,744
)
Net increase in cash and cash equivalents
$
72,880

 
$
53,923


Cash Flows Provided by Operating Activities
We generated operating cash flows of $114.5 million, $116.4 million and $117.1 million for years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Operating cash flows in 2017 decreased compared to the same period in 2016. Net income in 2017 decreased compared to 2016 due to an increase in expenses related to the acquisitions and integrations of Codman Neurosurgery and Derma Sciences. Net income for the year, adjusted for items included in net income which did not result in a change to our cash balance, amounted to cash inflows of $115.9 million, compared to $170.4 million in 2016. Changes in working capital in 2017 decreased cash flows by approximately $24.2 million. Among the changes in working capital, accounts receivable used $89.7 million of cash, inventory provided $0.1 million of cash, prepaid expenses and other current assets used $33.8 million of cash, and accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities provided $95.3 million of cash.
Operating cash flows in 2016 decreased compared to the same period in 2015. Net income in 2016 increased compared to 2015 due to an increase in income from continuing operations before income taxes and because of the impact of the tax valuation allowance recorded in 2015 in conjunction with the SeaSpine spin-off, which was a non-cash adjustment. In 2016, we also made payments of accreted interest of $42.8 million compared to $0.4 million paid in 2015, which are included in operating activities. Net income for the year, adjusted for items included in net income which did not result in a change to our cash balance, amounted to cash inflows of $170.4 million, compared to $127.8 million in 2015. Changes in working capital in 2016 decreased cash flows by approximately $11.3 million. Among the changes in working capital, accounts receivable used $17.5 million of cash, inventory used $9.6 million of cash, prepaid expenses and other current assets provided $14.9 million of cash, and accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities used $0.4 million of cash.
Operating cash flows in 2015 increased compared to the same period in 2014. Net income in 2015 decreased compared to 2014 primarily because of the impact of the tax valuation allowance recorded in conjunction with the SeaSpine spin-off, which was a non-cash adjustment. Net income for the year, adjusted for items included in net income which did not result in a change to our cash balance, amounted to cash inflows of $127.8 million, compared to $101.0 million in 2014. Changes in working capital in 2015 decreased cash flows by approximately $11.9 million. Among the changes in working capital, accounts receivable used $16.2 million of cash, inventory used $3.8 million of cash, prepaid expenses and other current assets used $0.2 million of cash, and accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities provided $8.2 million of cash.

41


Cash Flows Used in Investing Activities
During the year ended December 31, 2017, we paid an aggregate of $1.2 billion for the acquisition of Codman Neurosurgery, Derma Sciences and TGX Medical. The payment for Derma Sciences includes a $210.5 million payment of purchase price plus a $26.6 million payment for the BioD Product Payment in May 2017 (see Note 3, Acquisition, Divestitures and Pro Forma Results). We received $17.0 million from the sale of short-term investments acquired from Derma Sciences. We also received $46.4 million from the Divestiture to Natus in October 2017. We paid $43.5 million in cash for capital expenditures, most of which was directed towards the expansion of our manufacturing facilities and commercial expansion.
During the year ended December 31, 2016, we paid $47.3 million in cash for capital expenditures, most of which was directed to the expansion of our collagen manufacturing center, new instruments for several product launches, facility improvements and ERP implementation. We also released $4.1 million from a restricted cash account that supported our European cash pool activities.
During the year ended December 31, 2015, we paid $33.4 million in cash for capital expenditures, most of which was directed to the expansion of our collagen manufacturing center and ERP implementation. We also paid an aggregate of $328.9 million for the acquisition of the TEI, Salto and Futura product lines, and Tekmed. We transferred $4.1 million to a restricted cash account to support our European cash pool activities.
Cash Flows Provided by Financing Activities
Our principal sources of cash from financing activities in the year ended December 31, 2017 were $700.0 million under the Term Loan A-1 component of our Senior Credit Facility, $607.0 million of borrowings under the revolver component of our Senior Credit Facility, and $9.8 million in proceeds from stock option exercises, net of cash paid to cover employee taxes, offset by $117.0 million in repayments under our Senior Credit Facility, $7.1 million of cash taxes paid in net equity settlements and $19.0 million in debt issuance costs related to our Senior Credit Facility. In the third quarter of 2017, we paid $4.8 million related to the BioD Earnout Payments (see Note 3, Acquisition, Divestitures and Pro Forma Results).
Our principal sources of cash from financing activities in the year ended December 31, 2016 were $500.0 million under the term loan component of our Senior Credit Facility, $180.0 million of borrowings under the revolver component of our Senior Credit Facility, a $184.3 million repayment of the 2016 Convertible Notes, and $10.5 million in proceeds from stock option exercises, net of cash paid to cover employee taxes, offset by $511.3 million in repayments under our Senior Credit Facility, $4.9 million of cash taxes paid in net equity settlements and $4.5 million in debt issuance costs related to our Senior Credit Facility.
Our principal sources of cash from financing activities in the year ended December 31, 2015 were from $219.7 million of net proceeds from the issuance of 7.590 million shares of common stock in the third quarter, $545.0 million of borrowings under our Senior Credit Facility, and $7.3 million in proceeds from stock option exercises, net of cash paid to cover employee taxes, offset by $465.6 million in repayments under our Senior Credit Facility, a $47.0 million distribution to SeaSpine, a $2.5 million repayment of 2016 Convertible Notes and $6.6 million of cash taxes paid in net equity settlement.
Working Capital
At December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, working capital was $473.2 million and $371.6 million, respectively. Working capital consists of total current assets less total current liabilities as presented in the consolidated balance sheets.
Upcoming Debt Maturities
The first quarterly installment of the Company's Term Loan A and Term Loan A-1 components of its Senior Credit Facility is due on March 31, 2018. We recorded a total of $60.0 million of the Term Loan A and Term Loan A-1 components of the Senior Credit Facility as a current liability in the Company's consolidated balance sheets.

Amended and Restated Senior Credit Agreement
On March 31, 2017, the Company entered into an amendment (the "March 2017 Amendment") to its fourth amended and restated Senior Credit Facility with a syndicate of lending banks, Bank of America, N.A., as Administrative Agent. The March 2017 Amendment increased the aggregate principal amount from $1.5 billion to $2.2 billion available to the Company through the following facilities:
i.
a $500.0 million Term A facility;
ii.
a $700.0 million Term Loan A-1, which was available in a single drawing on a delayed basis at the time of closing of the Codman Acquisition (see Note 4 - Acquisitions and Pro forma Results); and
iii.
a $1.0 billion revolving credit facility, which includes a $60.0 million sublimit for the issuance of standby letters of credit and a $60.0 million sublimit for swingline loans.

42


In connection with the March 2017 Amendment, the Company’s maximum consolidated total leverage ratio in the financial covenants was increased to the following:
Fiscal Quarter
 
Maximum Consolidated Total Leverage Ratio
 
 
 
December 31, 2016 through before the first fiscal quarter after the delayed draw date of Term Loan A-1
 
4.50 : 1.00
First fiscal quarter ended after the delayed draw date of Term Loan A-1 through September 30, 2018
 
5.50 : 1.00
October 1, 2018 through September 30, 2019
 
5.00 : 1.00
October 1, 2019 through September 30, 2020
 
4.50 : 1.00
October 1, 2020 and thereafter
 
4.00 : 1.00
There was no change in the maturity date, which remains at December 7, 2021.
Borrowings under the Senior Credit Facility bear interest, at the Company's option, at a rate equal to
i.
the Eurodollar Rate (as defined in the amendment and restatement) in effect from time to time plus the applicable rate (ranging from 1.00% to 2.00%), or
ii.
the highest of:
1.
the weighted average overnight Federal funds rate, as published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, plus 0.50%, or
2.
the prime lending rate of Bank of America, N.A., or
3.
the one-month Eurodollar Rate plus 1.00%.
The applicable rates are based on the Company’s consolidated total leverage ratio (defined as the ratio of (a) consolidated funded indebtedness less cash in excess of $40.0 million that is not subject to any restriction of the use or investment thereof to (b) consolidated EBITDA) at the time of the applicable borrowing.
The Company will also pay an annual commitment fee (ranging from 0.15% to 0.35%), based on the Company’s consolidated total leverage ratio, on the amount for borrowing under the revolving credit facility.
The Senior Credit Facility is collateralized by substantially all of the assets of the Company’s U.S. subsidiaries, excluding intangible assets. The Senior Credit Facility is subject to various financial and negative covenants and at December 31, 2017 the Company was in compliance with all such covenants. The Company capitalized $19.1 million and $4.5 million of incremental financing costs in 2017 and 2016, respectively, in connection with the modifications of the Senior Credit Facility. The Company wrote-off a previously capitalized financing cost of $0.5 million as interest expense in 2016 related to the modifications.
In October 2017, to facilitate the completion of the Codman Acquisition, the Company drew $700.0 million from the Term Loan A-1 component of the Senior Credit Facility. The Company capitalized $19.1 million of incremental financing costs related to the drawing of Term A-1 component.
We plan to utilize the Senior Credit Facility for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, debt repayments and other general corporate purposes. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, there were $655.0 million and $165.0 million outstanding, respectively, under the revolving portion of the Senior Credit Facility at a weighted average interest rate of 3.7% and 2.2%, respectively. At December 31, 2017 and 2016 there was $500.0 million outstanding under the Term Loan A component of the Senior Credit Facility at a weighted average interest rate of 3.6% and 2.2%, respectively. At December 31, 2017, there was $700.0 million outstanding under the Term Loan A-1 component of the Senior Credit Facility at a weighted average interest rate of 3.6%. At December 31, 2017, there was approximately $344.4 million available for borrowing under the Senior Credit Facility.
Contractual repayments of the term loan under the March 2017 Amendment will begin in March 2018. We classify as short-term those repayments that are due within twelve months.
Letters of credit outstanding as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 totaled $0.6 million. There were no amounts drawn as of December 31, 2017.
Convertible Debt and Related Hedging Activities
On December 15, 2016, the Company extinguished its 2016 Convertible Notes by paying the remaining principal amount of $227.1 million and issued 2.9 million shares of common stock with a fair value of $122.0 million related to excess conversion value. No gain or loss on extinguishment was recognized as a result of the conversion. The Company also received 2.9 million shares of

43


common stock from the exercise of call options with hedge participants (as defined below) with a fair value of $123.1 million at the date of the exercise. The shares of common stock received from the exercise of the call options were held as treasury stock as of December 31, 2016 at a weighted average price of $41.78 per share for a total of $123.1 million.
The 2016 Convertible Notes were issued on June 15, 2011 with the aggregate principal of $230.0 million and maturity date of December 15, 2016. The 2016 Convertible Notes bore interest at a rate of 1.625% per annum payable semi-annually in arrears on December 15 and June 15 of each year. The 2016 Convertible Notes were senior, unsecured obligations and were convertible into cash and, if applicable, shares of its common stock based on a conversion rate defined within the note agreement.
In connection with the issuance of the 2016 Convertible Notes, we entered into call transactions and warrant transactions, primarily with affiliates of the initial purchasers of such notes (the “hedge participants”). The initial strike price of the call transaction was approximately $28.72 per share, subject to customary anti-dilution adjustments. The initial strike price of the warrant transaction was approximately $35.03 per share, subject to customary anti-dilution adjustments. The strike price of the call transactions and warrant transactions has been adjusted similar to the 2016 Convertible Notes as a result of the spin-off of the Company's spine business in July 2015 to $26.42 per share and $32.22 per share, respectively. The warrants expired on a series of expiration dates from March 2017 to August 2017. For the year ended December 31, 2017, the hedge participants exercised 8,707,202 warrants, and, as a result, the Company issued 2,839,743 shares of common stock for the year ended December 31, 2017. The Company has no warrants outstanding as of December 31, 2017.
Share Repurchase Plan
On October 25, 2016, our Board of Directors terminated its October 2014 authorization for the repurchase of its outstanding common stock and authorized management to repurchase up to $150.0 million of its outstanding common stock through December 2018. Shares may be repurchased either in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions.
There have been no shares of common stock repurchased by the Company under any of these authorizations in the year ended December 31, 2017 or 2016.
Dividend Policy
We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock since our formation. Our Senior Credit Facility limits the amount of dividends that we may pay. Any future determinations to pay cash dividends on our common stock will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and other factors deemed relevant by the Board of Directors.
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
As of December 31, 2017, we were obligated to pay the following amounts under the following agreements:
 
Total
 
Less than 1 Year
 
1-3 Years
 
3-5 Years
 
More than 5 Years
 
(In millions)
Senior Credit Facility - Revolver(1)
$
655.0

 
$

 
$

 
$
655.0

 
$

Senior Credit Facility - Term Loan A
500.0

 
25.0

 
62.5

 
412.5

 

Senior Credit Facility - Term Loan A-1
700.0

 
35.0

 
87.5

 
577.5

 

Interest(2)
164.8

 
42.7

 
79.1

 
43.0

 

Employment Agreements(3)
2.7

 
0.9

 
1.8

 

 

Operating Leases
97.3

 
13.7

 
22.4

 
13.5

 
47.7

Contingent Consideration
24.0

 
24.0

 

 

 

Purchase Obligations
12.2

 
10.9

 
1.3

 

 

Others
7.3

 
1.2

 
1.2

 
1.2

 
3.7

Total
$
2,163.3

 
$
153.4

 
$
255.8

 
$
1,702.7

 
$
51.4

(1)
The Company may borrow and make payments against the credit facility from time to time and considers all of the outstanding amounts to be long-term based on its current intent and ability to repay the borrowing outside the next twelve-month period.
(2)
As the revolving credit facility can be repaid at any time, no interest has been included in the calculation.
(3)
Amounts shown under Employment Agreements do not include compensation resulting from a change in control.
(4)
Amounts shown under Others include the Toll Tax of $5.5 million.

44


Excluded from the contractual obligations table is the liability for uncertain tax benefits, including interest and penalties, totaling $0.4 million. The Company has excluded its contingent consideration obligation, supply agreement liability and above market supply agreement liability related to prior acquisitions from the contractual obligations table above; these liabilities had a total fair value of $4.3 million at December 31, 2017. The liabilities for uncertain tax benefits, certain contingent consideration, supply agreement liability and above market supply agreement liability have been excluded because we cannot make a reliable estimate of the period in which the uncertain tax benefits or contingent consideration may be realized.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
There were no off-balance sheet arrangements during the year ended December 31, 2017 that have or are reasonably likely to have, a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources that is material to our interests.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND THE USE OF ESTIMATES
Our discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations is based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent liabilities, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses. Significant estimates affecting amounts reported or disclosed in the consolidated financial statements include allowances for doubtful accounts receivable and sales returns and allowances, net realizable value of inventories, valuation of intangible assets including in-process research and development, amortization periods for acquired intangible assets, estimates of projected cash flows and discount rates used to value intangible assets and test goodwill and intangible assets for impairment, estimates of projected cash flows and depreciation and amortization periods for long-lived assets, computation of taxes, computation of valuation allowances recorded against deferred tax assets, valuation of stock-based compensation, valuation of pension assets and liabilities, valuation of derivative instruments, valuation of the equity component of convertible debt instruments, valuation of debt instruments and loss contingencies. These estimates are based on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the current circumstances. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
We believe that the following accounting policies, which form the basis for developing these estimates, are those that are most critical to the presentation of our consolidated financial statements and require the more difficult subjective and complex judgments:
Allowances For Doubtful Accounts Receivable and Sales Returns and Allowances
We evaluate the collectability of accounts receivable based on a combination of factors. In circumstances where a specific customer is unable to meet its financial obligations to us, we record an allowance against amounts due to reduce the net recognized receivable to the amount that we reasonably expect to collect. For all other customers, we record allowances for doubtful accounts based on the length of time the receivables are past due, the current business environment and our historical experience. If the financial condition of customers or the length of time that receivables are past due were to change, we may change the recorded amount of allowances for doubtful accounts in the future through charges or reductions to selling, general and administrative expense.
We record a provision for estimated sales returns and allowances on revenues in the same period as the related revenues are recorded. We base these estimates on historical sales returns and allowances and other known factors. If actual returns or allowances differ from our estimates and the related provisions for sales returns and allowances, we may change the sales returns and allowances provision in the future through an increase or decrease in revenues.
Inventories
Inventories, consisting of purchased materials, direct labor and manufacturing overhead, are stated at the lower of cost (determined by the first-in, first-out method) or net realizable value. At each balance sheet date, we evaluate ending inventories for excess quantities, obsolescence or shelf-life expiration. Our evaluation includes an analysis of historical sales levels by product, projections of future demand by product, the risk of technological or competitive obsolescence for our products, general market conditions, a review of the shelf-life expiration dates for our products, and the feasibility of reworking or using excess or obsolete products or components in the production or assembly of other products that are not obsolete or for which we do not have excess quantities in inventory. To the extent that we determine there are excess or obsolete quantities or quantities with a shelf life that is too near its expiration for us to reasonably expect that we can sell those products prior to their expiration, we adjust their carrying value to estimated net realizable value. If future demand or market conditions are lower than our projections, or if we are unable to rework excess or obsolete quantities into other products, we may record further adjustments to the carrying value of inventory through a charge to cost of product revenues in the period the revision is made.
Acquisitions
Results of operations of acquired companies are included in the Company’s results of operations as of the respective acquisition dates. The purchase price of each acquisition is allocated to the net assets acquired based on estimates of their fair values at the date of the acquisition. Any purchase price in excess of these net assets is recorded as goodwill. The allocation of purchase price

45


in certain cases may be subject to revision based on the final determination of fair values during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date.
Contingent consideration is recognized at the estimated fair value on the acquisition date. Subsequent changes to the fair value of contingent payments are recognized in earnings. Contingent payments related to acquisitions consist of development, regulatory, and commercial milestone payments, in addition to sales-based payments, and are valued using discounted cash flow techniques. The fair value of development, regulatory, and commercial milestone payments reflects management’s expectations of probability of payment, and increases or decreases as the probability of payment or expectation of timing of payments changes. The fair value of sales-based payments is based upon probability-weighted future revenue estimates and increases or decreases as revenue estimates or expectation of timing of payments changes.
Valuation of Goodwill
The excess of the cost over the fair value of net assets of acquired businesses is recorded as goodwill. Goodwill is not subject to amortization, but is reviewed for impairment at the reporting unit level annually, or more frequently if impairment indicators arise. Our assessment of the recoverability of goodwill is based upon a comparison of the carrying value of goodwill with its estimated fair value. We review goodwill for impairment annually as of July 31 and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of goodwill may not be recoverable.
In October 2017, as part of our strategy, we adopted the Codman name by rebranding our Specialty Surgical Solutions segment to Codman Specialty Surgical.
We have two reportable segments with three underlying reporting units: Instruments and Neurosurgery, under Codman Specialty Surgical and Orthopedics and Tissue Technologies. Refer to Note 13 - Segment and Geographic Information for more information on reportable segments.
We estimated the fair value of the three reporting units using a discounted cash flow model, which incorporates significant estimates and assumptions made by management which, by their nature, are characterized by uncertainty. Inputs used to estimate the fair value of our reporting units are considered inputs of the fair value hierarchy. For Level 3 measurements, significant increases or decreases in long-term growth rates or discount rates in isolation or in combination could result in a significantly lower or higher fair value measurement. The key assumptions impacting the valuation included the following:
The reporting unit's financial projections, which are based on management's assessment of regional and macroeconomic variables, industry trends and market opportunities, and our strategic objectives and future growth plans.
The projected terminal value for the reporting unit, which represents the present value of projected cash flows beyond the last period in the discounted cash flow analysis. The terminal value reflects our assumptions related to long-term growth rates and profitability, which are based on several factors, including local and macroeconomic variables, market opportunities, and future growth plans.
The discount rate used to measure the present value of the projected future cash flows is set using a weighted-average cost of capital method that considers market and industry data as well as our specific risk factors that are likely to be considered by a market participant. The weighted-average cost of capital is our estimate of the overall after-tax rate of return required by equity and debt holders of a business enterprise.

Given the excess of the estimated fair values of the Instruments, Neurosurgery and Orthopedics and Tissue Technologies reporting units over their carrying values after the reallocation of goodwill, no impairment was recognized.

We elected to early adopt ASU 2017-4, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, effective January 1, 2017. We performed our annual goodwill impairment test as of July 31, 2017. In reviewing goodwill for impairment, we have the option - for any or all of its reporting units that carry goodwill - to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not (i.e. greater than 50%) that the estimated fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If we elect to perform a qualitative assessment and determine that an impairment is more likely than not, we are then required to perform the quantitative impairment test, otherwise no further analysis is required. We may elect not to perform the qualitative assessment and, instead, proceed directly to the quantitative impairment test. The ultimate outcome of the goodwill impairment review for a reporting unit should be the same whether we choose to perform the qualitative assessment or proceeds directly to the quantitative impairment test.
We elected to perform a qualitative analysis for our three reporting units as of July 31, 2017. We determined, after performing the qualitative analysis that there was no evidence that it is more likely than not that the fair value of any identified reporting unit is less than their carrying value; therefore, it was not necessary to perform the quantitative impairment test.

46


Valuation of Identifiable Intangible Assets
Other intangible assets include patents, trademarks, purchased technology, and supplier and customer relationships. Identifiable intangible assets are initially recorded at fair market value at the time of acquisition generally using an income or cost approach. The Company capitalizes costs incurred to renew or extend the term of recognized intangible assets and amortizes those costs over their expected useful lives.  
Derivatives
We develop, manufacture, and sell medical devices globally. Our earnings and cash flows are exposed to market risk from changes in interest rates and currency exchange rates. We address these risks through a risk management program that includes the use of derivative financial instruments, and operate the program pursuant to documented corporate risk management policies. All derivative financial instruments are recognized in the financial statements at fair value in accordance with the authoritative guidance. Under the guidance, for those instruments that are designated and qualify as hedging instruments, the hedging instrument must be designated as a fair value hedge, cash flow hedge, or a hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation, based on the exposure being hedged. The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative instrument depends on whether it has been designated and qualifies as part of a hedging relationship and, further, on the type of hedging relationship. Our derivative instruments do not subject our earnings or cash flows to material risk, and gains and losses on these derivatives generally offset losses and gains on the item being hedged. We have not entered into derivative transactions for speculative purposes and all of our derivatives are designated as hedges.
All derivative instruments are recognized at their fair values as either assets or liabilities on the balance sheet. We determine the fair value of our derivative instruments, using the framework prescribed by the authoritative guidance, by considering the estimated amount we would receive to sell or transfer these instruments at the reporting date and by taking into account expected forward interest rates, currency exchange rates, the creditworthiness of the counterparty for assets, and our creditworthiness for liabilities. In certain instances, we may utilize a discounted cash flow model to measure fair value. Generally, we use inputs that include quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, other observable inputs for the asset or liability, and inputs that are derived principally from, or corroborated by, observable market data by correlation or other means.
We also entered into a foreign currency forward contract that is not designated as a hedging instrument for accounting purposes. This contract is recorded at fair value, with the changes in fair value recognized into other income, net on the consolidated financial statements.
Income Taxes
Since we conduct operations on a global basis, our effective tax rate has and will depend upon the geographic distribution of our pre-tax earnings among locations with varying tax rates. Changes in the tax rates of the various jurisdictions in which we operate affect our profits. In addition, we maintain a reserve for uncertain tax benefits, changes to which could impact our effective tax rate in the period such changes are made. The effective tax rate can also be impacted by changes in valuation allowances of deferred tax assets, and tax law changes.
Our provision for income taxes may change period-to-period based on specific events, such as the settlement of income tax audits and changes in tax laws, as well as general factors, including the geographic mix of income before taxes, state and local taxes and the effects of the Company's global income tax strategies. We maintain strategic management and operational activities in overseas subsidiaries. See Note 11, Income Taxes, in our consolidated financial statements for disclosures related to foreign and domestic pretax income, foreign and domestic income tax expense (benefit) and the effect foreign taxes have on our overall effective tax rate.
We recognize a tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination based on the technical merits of the position. The amount of the accrual for which an exposure exists is measured by determining the amount that has a greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement of the position. Components of the reserve are classified as a long-term liability in the consolidated balance sheets. We record interest and penalties accrued in relation to uncertain tax benefits as a component of income tax expense.
We believe that we have identified all reasonably identifiable exposures and that the reserve we have established for identifiable exposures is appropriate under the circumstances; however, it is possible that additional exposures exist and that exposures will be settled at amounts different from the amounts reserved. It is also possible that changes in facts and circumstances could cause us to either materially increase or reduce the carrying amount of our tax reserves.
Our deferred income taxes reflect the net tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and their basis for income tax purposes, and also the temporary differences created by the tax effects of capital loss, net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. We record valuation allowances to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts that are more likely than not to be realized. We could recognize no benefit from our deferred tax assets or we could recognize some or all of the future benefit depending on the amount and timing of taxable income we generate in the future.

47


We intend to indefinitely reinvest substantially all of our foreign earnings in foreign operations of our foreign subsidiaries. The current analysis indicates that we have sufficient U.S. liquidity, including borrowing capacity, to fund foreseeable U.S. cash needs without requiring the repatriation of foreign cash. The 2017 Tax Act, imposes a toll tax on a deemed repatriation of undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries. One time or unusual items that may impact our ability or intent to keep the foreign earnings and cash indefinitely reinvested include significant U.S. acquisitions, loans from a foreign subsidiary, and changes in tax laws.
On December 22, 2017, the SEC staff issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 to address the application of U.S. GAAP in situations where a registrant does not have the necessary information available, prepared, or analyzed (including computations) in reasonable detail to complete the accounting for certain income tax effects of the 2017 Tax Act. The Company has recognized the provisional tax impacts related to deemed repatriated earnings and the revaluation of deferred tax assets and liabilities and included these amounts in its consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017. The ultimate impact may differ from these provisional amounts, possibly materially, due to, among other things, additional analysis, changes in interpretations and assumptions the Company has made, additional regulatory guidance that may be issued, and actions the Company may take as a result of the 2017 Tax Act.
Loss Contingencies
We are subject to claims and lawsuits in the ordinary course of our business, including claims by employees or former employees, with respect to our products and involving commercial disputes. We accrue for loss contingencies when it is deemed probable that a loss has been incurred and that loss is estimable. The amounts accrued are based on the full amount of the estimated loss before considering insurance proceeds, if applicable, and do not include an estimate for legal fees expected to be incurred in connection with the loss contingency. We consistently accrue legal fees expected to be incurred in connection with loss contingencies as those fees are incurred by outside counsel as a period cost. Our financial statements do not reflect any material amounts related to possible unfavorable outcomes of claims and lawsuits to which we are currently a party because we currently believe that such claims and lawsuits are not expected, individually or in the aggregate, to result in a material, adverse effect on our financial condition. However, it is possible that these contingencies could materially affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flows in a particular period if we change our assessment of the likely outcome of these matters.
Pension Benefits
A defined benefit pension plan covers former employees in Germany. Various factors are considered in determining the pension liability, including the number of employees expected to be paid their salary levels and years of service, the expected return on plan assets, the discount rate used to determine the benefit obligations, the timing of benefit payments and other actuarial assumptions. If the actual results and events for the pension plans differ from current assumptions, the benefit obligation may be over or under valued.
We acquired several funded and unfunded non-U.S. defined benefit pension plans as part of the Codman Neurosurgery acquisition. We recognize the underfunded status of the defined benefit pension plans as an asset or a liability in the balance sheet, with changes in the funded status recorded through other comprehensive income in the year in which those changes occur.
The Company’s discount rates are determined by considering current yield curves representing high quality, long-term fixed income instruments. The resulting discount rates are consistent with the duration of plan liabilities. In 2017, the discount rate was prescribed as the current yield on corporate bonds with an average rating of AA or AAA of equivalent currency and term to the liabilities.
The expected return on plan assets represents the average rate of return expected to be earned on plan assets over the period the benefits included in the benefit obligation are to be paid. In developing the expected rate of return, the Company considers returns of historical market data as well as actual returns on the plan assets. Using this reference information, the long-term return expectations for each asset category are developed according to the allocation among those investment categories.
The net plan assets of the pension plans are invested in common trusts as of December 31, 2017. Common trusts are classified as Level 2 in fair value hierarchy. The fair value of common trusts are valued at net asset value based on the fair values of the underlying investments of the trusts as determined by the sponsor of the trusts.
The following weighted average assumptions were used to develop net periodic pension benefit cost and the actuarial present value of projected pension benefit obligations for the year ended December 31, 2017:
Discount rate
0.74
%
Expected return on plan assets
3.08
%
Rate of compensation increase
1.70
%
A change of plus (minus) 25 basis points on expected rate of return on plan assets, with other assumptions held constant, would have an estimated $0.1 million favorable (unfavorable) impact on pension plan costs. As of December 31, 2017, contributions expected to be paid to the plan in 2018 is $1.8 million.

48


We use the corridor approach in the valuation of defined benefit pension benefit plans. The corridor approach defers all actuarial gains and losses resulting from variances between actual results and actuarial assumptions. Those unrecognized gains and losses are amortized when the net gains and losses exceed 10% of the greater of the market-related value of plan assets or the projected benefit obligation at the beginning of the year. The amount in excess of the corridor is amortized over the average remaining service period to retirement date of active plan participants.
In September 2015, we completed the buy-out of our defined benefit pension plan in the U.K. which covered certain employees and retirees. All plan assets of the defined benefit pension plan were transferred to an independent financial services firm and the Company made cash contributions of approximately $1.8 million for the year-ended December 31, 2015.
Stock-based Compensation
We apply the authoritative guidance for stock-based compensation. This guidance requires companies to recognize the expense related to the fair value of their stock-based compensation awards. Stock-based compensation expense for stock option awards granted after January 1, 2006 was based on the fair value on the grant date using the binomial distribution model. The Company recognized compensation expense for stock option awards, restricted stock awards, performance stock awards and contract stock awards on a ratable basis over the requisite service period of the award. All excess tax benefits and taxes and tax deficiencies from stock-based compensation are included in the provision for income taxes in the consolidated statement of operations.   
Recently Issued and Adopted Accounting Standards
Refer to Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, to the consolidated financial statements for recently adopted accounting pronouncements and recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted as of December 31, 2017.

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We are exposed to various market risks, including changes in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates that could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. To manage the volatility relating to these typical business exposures, we may enter into various derivative transactions when appropriate. We do not hold or issue derivative instruments for trading or other speculative purposes.
Foreign Currency Exchange and Other Rate Risks
We operate on a global basis and are exposed to the risk that changes in foreign currency exchange rates could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. We are primarily exposed to foreign currency exchange rate risk with respect to transactions and net assets denominated in euros, Swiss francs, British pounds, Canadian dollars, Japanese yen, Mexican pesos, Brazilian reais, Australian dollars and Chinese yuan. We manage the foreign currency exposure centrally, on a combined basis, which allows us to net exposures and to take advantage of any natural offsets. To mitigate the impact of currency fluctuations on transactions denominated in nonfunctional currencies, we periodically enter into derivative financial instruments in the form of foreign currency exchange forward contracts with major financial institutions. We temporarily record realized and unrealized gains and losses on these contracts that qualify as cash flow hedges in other comprehensive income, and then recognize them in other income or expense when the hedged item affects net earnings.
From time to time, we enter into foreign currency forward exchange contracts to manage currency exposures for transactions denominated in a currency other than an entity’s functional currency. As a result, the impact of foreign currency gains/losses recognized in earnings are partially offset by gains/losses on the related foreign currency forward exchange contracts in the same reporting period.
On October 2, 2017, we entered into cross currency swap agreements to convert a notional amount of $300.0 million equivalent to 291.2 million of Swiss Franc ("CHF") denominated intercompany loans into U.S. dollars. The CHF denominated intercompany loans were the result of the purchase of intellectual property by a subsidiary in Switzerland as part of the Codman Acquisition. The objective of these cross-currency swaps is to reduce volatility of earnings and cash flows associated with changes in the foreign currency exchange rate. Under the terms of these contracts, which have been designated as cash flow hedges, we will make interest payments in CHF and receive interest in U.S. dollars. Upon the maturity of these contracts, the Company will pay the principal amount of the loans in Swiss Francs and receive U.S. dollars from the counterparties.
On November 28, 2017, we entered into a foreign currency forward contract, with a notional amount of $8.9 million to mitigate the foreign currency exchange risk related to certain intercompany loans denominated in CHF. The contract is not designated as a hedging instrument.
At December 31, 2017, we had an outstanding cross currency swap and currency forward contract with an aggregate notional amount of $300.0 million and $8.9 million, respectively.

49


We maintain written policies and procedures governing our risk management activities. With respect to cash flow hedges, changes in cash flows attributable to hedged transactions are generally expected to be completely offset by changes in the fair value of hedge instruments. Consequently, foreign currency exchange contracts would not subject us to material risk due to exchange rate movements, because gains and losses on these contracts offset gains and losses on the assets, liabilities or transactions being hedged.
The results of operations discussed herein have not been materially affected by inflation.
Interest Rate Risk
Cash and Cash Equivalents - We are exposed to the risk of interest rate fluctuations on the interest income earned on our cash and cash equivalents. A hypothetical 100 basis points movement in interest rates applicable to our cash and cash equivalents outstanding at December 31, 2017 would increase interest income by approximately $1.7 million on an annual basis. No significant decrease in interest income would be expected as our cash balances are earning interest at rates of approximately 2 basis points. We are subject to foreign currency exchange risk with respect to cash balances maintained in foreign currencies.
Senior Credit Facility - Our interest rate risk relates primarily to U.S. dollar LIBOR-indexed borrowings. We use interest rate swap derivative instruments to manage our earnings and cash flow exposure to changes in interest rates. These interest rate swaps fix the interest rate on a portion of our expected LIBOR-indexed floating-rate borrowings. The Company held the following interest rate swaps as of December 31, 2017 (dollar amounts in thousands):
Hedged Item
 
Current Notional Amount
 
Designation Date
 
Effective Date
 
Termination Date
 
Fixed Interest Rate
 
Floating Rate
 
Estimated Fair Value
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Assets (Liabilities)
3-month USD LIBOR Loan
 
$
50,000

 
June 22, 2016
 
December 31, 2016
 
June 30, 2019
 
1.062
%
 
3-month USD LIBOR
 
$
675

3-month USD LIBOR Loan
 
50,000

 
June 22, 2016
 
December 31, 2016
 
June 30, 2019
 
1.062
%
 
3-month USD LIBOR
 
672

1-month USD LIBOR Loan
 
50,000

 
July 12, 2016
 
December 31, 2016
 
June 30, 2019
 
0.825
%
 
1-month USD LIBOR
 
779

3-month USD LIBOR Loan
 
50,000

 
February 6, 2017
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2020
 
1.834
%
 
3-month USD LIBOR
 
318

1-month USD LIBOR Loan
 
100,000

 
February 6, 2017
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2020
 
1.652
%
 
1-month USD LIBOR
 
858

1-month USD LIBOR Loan
 
100,000

 
March 27, 2017
 
December 31, 2017
 
June 30, 2021
 
1.971
%
 
1-month USD LIBOR
 
337

1-month USD LIBOR Loan
 
150,000

 
December 13, 2017
 
January 1, 2018
 
December 31, 2022
 
2.201
%
 
1-month USD LIBOR
 
(455
)
1-month USD LIBOR Loan
 
150,000

 
December 13, 2017
 
January 1, 2018
 
December 31, 2022
 
2.201
%
 
1-month USD LIBOR
 
(434
)
1-month USD LIBOR Loan
 
100,000

 
December 13, 2017
 
July 1, 2019
 
June 30, 2024
 
2.423
%
 
1-month USD LIBOR
 
(684
)
1-month USD LIBOR Loan
 
50,000

 
December 13, 2017
 
July 1, 2019
 
June 30, 2024
 
2.423
%
 
1-month USD LIBOR
 
(255
)
1-month USD LIBOR Loan
 
200,000

 
December 13, 2017
 
January 1, 2018
 
December 31, 2024
 
2.313
%
 
1-month USD LIBOR
 
(1,219
)
Total interested rate derivatives designated as cash flow hedge
 
$
1,050,000

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
592

These interest rate swaps were designated as a cash flow hedges as of December 31, 2017.
We had an interest rate swap that fixed the interest rate on a portion of our expected LIBOR-indexed floating-rate borrowings beginning on December 31, 2010. The interest rate swap expired in August 2015. The interest rate swap was used to manage the Company's earnings and cash flow exposure to changes in interest rates by converting a portion of its floating-rate debt into fixed-rate debt. We recognized $0.9 million of additional interest expense related to this derivative during the year-ended December 31, 2015.
Based on our outstanding borrowings at December 31, 2017, a 100 basis points change in interest rates would have impacted interest expense on the unhedged portion of the debt by $8.1 million on an annualized basis.

ITEM 8.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Financial statements and the financial statement schedules specified by this Item, together with the report thereon of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, are presented following Item 15 of this report.
Information on quarterly results of operations is set forth in our financial statements under Note 16, “Selected Quarterly Information — Unaudited,” to our consolidated financial statements.

50


ITEM 9.
CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

51


ITEM 9A.
CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
We maintain disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed in our Exchange Act reports is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Securities and Exchange Commission’s rules and forms and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, as appropriate, to allow for timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Disclosure controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives, and management is required to apply its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Management has designed our disclosure controls and procedures to provide reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives.
As required by Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(b), we have carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of December 31, 2017. Based upon this evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of December 31, 2017 to provide such reasonable assurance.
Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Internal control over financial reporting is designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”). We recognize that because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions or that the degree of compliance with the policies and procedures may deteriorate.
To evaluate the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, management used the criteria described in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”). Based upon this evaluation, management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2017.
The effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017 has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which appears herein.
On February 24, 2017, the Company completed the acquisition of Derma Sciences. In accordance with SEC Staff guidance permitting a company to exclude an acquired business from management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting for the year in which the acquisition is completed, we excluded Derma Sciences from our assessment of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017. Derma Sciences is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company whose total assets represent approximately 0.6% of the Company’s total assets and whose net revenues represent approximately 4.0% of the Company’s net revenues as of and for the year ended December 31, 2017.
On October 2, 2017, the Company completed the acquisition of Codman Neurosurgery. In accordance with SEC Staff guidance permitting a company to exclude an acquired business from management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting for the year in which the acquisition is completed, we excluded Codman Neurosurgery from our assessment of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017. The assets of Codman Neurosurgery represent approximately 5.2% of the Company’s total assets and the net revenues of Codman Neurosurgery represent approximately 6.5% of the Company’s net revenues as of and for the year ended December 31, 2017.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act) that occurred during the quarter ended December 31, 2017 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
ITEM 9B.
OTHER INFORMATION
Not applicable.
PART III
INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

52


The information called for by Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities relating to equity compensation plans, Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance, Item 11. Executive Compensation, Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters, Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence and Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services is incorporated herein by reference to the Company’s definitive proxy statement for its Annual Meeting of Stockholders scheduled to be held on May 17, 2018, which definitive proxy statement is expected to be filed with the Commission not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.





PART IV
ITEM 15.
EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES
(a) Documents filed as a part of this report.
1. Financial Statements.
The following financial statements and financial statement schedules are filed as a part of this report:
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
F-1
Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015
F-2
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss) for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015
F-3
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2017 and 2016
F-4
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015
F-5
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015
F-6
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
F-7
 
 
2. Financial Statement Schedules
 
 
 
Schedule II — Valuation and Qualifying Accounts for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015
F-50
All other schedules not listed above have been omitted, because they are not applicable or are not required, or because the required information is included in the consolidated financial statements or notes thereto.
3. Exhibits required to be filed by Item 601 of Regulation S-K.

2.1
 
 
 
 
2.2
 
 
 
 
2.3
 
 
 
 
2.4
 
 
 
 

53


2.5
 
 
 
 
2.6
 
 
 
 
2.7
 
2.7(a)
 
2.8
 

 
 
 
3.1(a)
 
 
 
3.1(b)
 
 
 
 
3.1(c)
 
 
 
 
3.1(d)
 
 
 
3.2
 
 
 
4.1
 
 
 
4.2
 
 
 
4.3(a)
 
 
 
 
4.3(b)
 
 
 
4.3(c)
 
 
 

54


4.3(d)
 
 
 
4.3(e)
 
 
 
4.3(f)
 
 
 
4.3(g)
 
 
 
4.3(h)
 
 
 
 
4.3(i)
 
 
 
4.3(j)
 
 
 
 
4.3(k)
 
 
 
 
4.3(l)
 
 
 
 

55


4.3(m)
 
4.3(n)
 
 
 
 
4.4
 
 
 
4.5
 
 
 
4.6
 
 
 
4.7
 
 
 
4.8
 
 
 
4.9
 
 
 
4.10
 
 
 
4.11
 
 
 
4.12
 
 
 
10.1(a)
 
Lease between Plainsboro Associates and American Biomaterials Corporation dated as of April 16, 1985, as assigned to Colla-Tec, Inc. on September 30, 1988 and as amended on November 1, 1992 as Lease Modification #1 (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.30 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form 10/A (File No. 0-26224) which became effective on August 8, 1995)
 
 
 
10.1(b)
 
 
 
10.1(c)
 
10.1(d)
 

 
 

56


10.2 (a)
 
 
 
10.2(b)
 
 
 
10.3(a)
 
Form of Indemnification Agreement between the Company and [ ] dated August 16, 1995, including a schedule identifying the individuals that are a party to such Indemnification Agreements (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.37 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No. 33-98698) which became effective on January 24, 1996)*
 
 
 
10.3(b)
 
 
 
10.4
 
 
 
 
10.5
 
 
 
10.6
 
 
 
10.7(a)
 
 
 
10.7(b)
 
 
 
10.8(a)
 
 
 
10.8(b)
 
 
 
10.8(c)
 
 
 
10.9(a)
 
 
 
 
10.9(b)
 
 
 
 
10.9(c)
 
 
 
 
10.10(a)
 
 
 
10.10(b)
 
 
 
 
10.10(c)
 
 
 
 
10.10(d)
 

10.10(e)
 
 
 

57


10.11(a)
 
 
 
10.11(b)
 
 
 
10.11(c)
 
 
 
10.11(d)
 
 
 
10.11(e)
 
 
 
10.11(f)
 
 
 
10.11(g)
 
 
 
10.11(h)
 
 
 
10.12
 
 
 
10.13(a)
 
 
 
10.13(b)
 
 
 
10.13(c)
 
 
 
10.14(a)
 
 
 
10.14(b)
 
 
 
10.14(c)
 
 
 
10.14(d)
 
 
 
10.14(e)
 
 
 
10.14(f)
 
 
 
 
10.14(g)
 
 
 

58


10.15
 
 
 
 
10.16
 
 
 
10.17(a)
 
 
 
10.17(b)
 
 
 
10.17(c)
 
 
 
10.18(a)
 
 
 
10.18(b)
 
 
 
 
10.18(c)
 
10.18(d)
 
 
 
10.19
 
 
 
 
10.20
 
 
 
10.21(a)
 
 
 
10.21(b)
 
 
 
10.21(c)
 
 
 
10.22
 
 
 
10.23
 
 
 
10.24
 
 
 
10.25(a)
 
 
 
10.25(b)
 
 
 

59


10.26
 
 
 
10.27(a)
 
 
 
10.27(b)
 
 
 
10.27(c)
 
 
 
10.27(d)
 
 
 
10.28
 
 
 
10.29
 
 
 
10.30