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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
 or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from              to             
COMMISSION FILE NO. 000-26224
 
INTEGRA LIFESCIENCES HOLDINGS CORPORATION
(EXACT NAME OF REGISTRANT AS SPECIFIED IN ITS CHARTER)
 
Delaware 51-0317849
(STATE OR OTHER JURISDICTION OF
INCORPORATION OR ORGANIZATION)
 (I.R.S. EMPLOYER
IDENTIFICATION NO.)
1100 Campus Road 08540
Princeton,New Jersey(ZIP CODE)
(ADDRESS OF PRINCIPAL EXECUTIVE OFFICES) 

REGISTRANT’S TELEPHONE NUMBER, INCLUDING AREA CODE: (609275-0500
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:
Title of Each ClassTrading SymbolName of Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, Par Value $.01 Per ShareIARTNasdaq Global Select Market
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT:
NONE
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act. Yes  
 No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
1


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes   No  
As of June 30, 2022, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $3,916.0 million based upon the closing sales price of the registrant’s common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on such date. The number of shares of the registrant’s Common Stock, $0.01 par value, outstanding as of February 21, 2023 was 81,636,066.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
Certain portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to its scheduled May 12, 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


2


INTEGRA LIFESCIENCES HOLDINGS CORPORATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS 
 Page
           Item 1. Business
           Item 1A. Risk Factors
           Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
           Item 2. Properties
           Item 3. Legal Proceedings
           Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
            Item 6. [Reserved]
            Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
            Item 9B. Other Information
            Item 11. Executive Compensation
            Item 16. Form 10-K Summary

3


PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
OVERVIEW
The terms “we,” “our,” “us,” “Company,” "Integra LifeSciences," and “Integra” refer to Integra LifeSciences Holdings Corporation, a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries, unless the context suggests otherwise.
Integra LifeSciences is a global leader in regenerative tissue technologies and neurological solutions dedicated to limiting uncertainty for clinicians so they can focus on providing the best patient care. Founded in 1989 with the acquisition of an engineered collagen technology platform used to repair and regenerate tissue, Integra LifeSciences Holdings Corporation common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “IART.” Integra has developed numerous product lines from this technology for applications ranging from burn and deep tissue wounds to the repair of dura mater in the brain, as well as nerves and tendons. The Company has expanded its base regenerative technology business to include surgical instruments, neurosurgical products and advanced wound care through global acquisitions and product development to meet the evolving needs of its customers and enhance patient care.
Integra products are sold in more than 130 countries through a direct sales force as well as distributors and wholesalers. We manufacture and sell medical technologies and products in two reportable business segments: Codman Specialty Surgical ("CSS") and Tissue Technologies ("TT"). The CSS segment, which represents approximately two-thirds of our total revenue, consists of market-leading technologies and instrumentation used for a wide range of specialties, such as neurosurgery, neurocritical care and otolaryngology. We are the world leader in neurosurgery and one of the top three providers in instruments used in precision, specialty, and general surgical procedures. Our TT segment generates about one-third of our overall revenue and focuses on three main areas: complex wound surgery, surgical reconstruction, and peripheral nerve repair.
We have key manufacturing and research facilities located in California, Indiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Ohio, Puerto Rico, Tennessee, Utah, France, Germany, Ireland and Switzerland. We source most of our handheld surgical instruments and dural sealant products through specialized third-party vendors.
Vision
We aspire to continue to be a worldwide leader in neurosurgery and reconstructive surgery with a portfolio of leading businesses that delivers outstanding customer experiences through innovation, execution and teamwork to positively impact the lives of millions of patients and their families.
Strategy
Integra is committed to delivering high quality products that positively impact the lives of millions of patients and their families. We focus on four key pillars of our strategy: 1) enabling an execution-focused culture, 2) optimizing relevant scale, 3) advancing innovation and agility, and 4) leading in customer experience. We believe that by sharpening our focus on these areas through improved planning and communication, optimization of our infrastructure, and strategically aligned acquisitions, we can build scale, increase competitiveness and achieve our long-term goals.
To this end, the executive leadership team has established the following key priorities aligned to the following areas of focus:
Strategic Acquisitions. An important part of the our strategy is pursuing strategic transactions and licensing agreements that increase relevant scale in the clinical areas in which Integra competes. Our growth strategy includes the acquisition of businesses, assets or products lines to increase the breadth of our offerings, the reach of our product portfolios and drive relevant scale to our customers. On December 6, 2022, the Company completed the acquisition of Surgical Innovation Associates, Inc. ("SIA"), which develops, markets and sells DuraSorb®, a resorbable synthetic matrix for plastic and reconstructive surgery. This acquisition will advance Integra’s global strategy in breast reconstruction, expanding plans to access the U.S. market where SIA is pursuing pre-market approval for use in implant-based breast reconstruction ("IBBR"). We also continued to expand our product offering of regenerative technologies from our 2021 acquisition of ACell, Inc. ("ACell"), an innovative regenerative medicine company specializing in the manufacturing of porcine urinary bladder extracellular matrices. See Note 4, Acquisitions and Divestitures, to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for additional details.
New Product Introductions and Portfolio Optimization. We are investing in innovative product development to drive a multi-generational pipeline for our key product franchises. Our product development efforts span across our key global franchises focused on potential technological innovations for significant returns on investment. In addition to new product development, we are funding studies to gather clinical evidence to support launches, ensure market access and improve reimbursement for existing products. In addition to acquisitions and organic reinvestment, we continually look to optimize our portfolio towards higher growth and higher margin businesses.
As such, we may opportunistically divest businesses or discontinue products where we see limited runway for future value creation in line with our aspirations due in part to changes in the market, business fundamentals or the regulatory environment.
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In August 2022, we completed the sale of our non-core traditional wound care ("TWC") business to Gentell, LLC ("Gentall") for $28.8 million, which consists of $27.8 million in cash plus $1.0 million in contingent consideration which may be received upon the achievement of certain revenue-based performance milestones. In January 2021, we completed the sale of our Extremity Orthopedics business to Smith & Nephew USD Limited ("Smith & Nephew"), a subsidiary of Smith & Nephew plc, for approximately $240 million in cash. Our portfolio optimization actions over the past two years have allowed us to increase our focus on Integra’s core portfolio of market-leading products in neurosurgery, surgical instrumentation and regenerative tissue and moves us closer to achieving our long-term organic growth and profitability targets. See Note 4, Acquisitions and Divestitures, to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for additional details.
Commercial Channel Investments. Investing in our sales channels is a core part of our strategy to create specialization and greater focus on reaching new and existing customers and addressing their needs. To support our commercial efforts in Tissue Technologies, we utilize a two-tier specialist model to increase our presence in focused segments to help serve the evolving needs of our customers. In addition, we continue to build upon our leadership brands across our product franchises in both CSS and TT to engage customers through enterprise-wide contracts with leading hospitals, integrated delivery networks and global purchasing organizations in the United States. Internationally, we have increased our commercial resources significantly in key emerging markets and are making investments to support our sales organization and maximize our commercial opportunities. Domestically, we have also increased our TT sales force in the United States to support the expanded regenerative tissue product portfolio that includes ACell products. These investments in our international and domestic sales channel position us well for expansion and long-term growth.
Customer Experience. We aspire to be ranked as a best-in-class provider and are committed to strengthening our relationships with all customers. We continue to invest in technologies, systems and processes to enhance the customer experience. In 2022, we outsourced certain transactional back-office finance and customer service activities to enhance customer quality, build scale for future growth, and capture cost efficiencies. We also launched digital tools and programs, resources and virtual product training to drive continued customer familiarity with our growing portfolio of medical technologies globally. .
BUSINESS SEGMENTS
Integra currently manufactures and sells our products and technologies in the following two global reportable business segments: Codman Specialty Surgical and Tissue Technologies. We include financial information regarding our reportable business segments and certain geographic information under "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and Note 16, Segment and Geographic Information to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K).
Codman Specialty Surgical
The Codman Specialty Surgical business consists of a broad portfolio of market-leading brands, such as Codman®, DuraGen®, DuraSeal®, CUSA®, Mayfield®,Bactiseal®, and Certas® Plus,which are used for the management of multiple disease states, including brain tumors, traumatic brain injury, hydrocephalus and other neurological conditions. The growth in this business in the recent years has been fueled by geographic expansion and new product registrations in markets, such as China, Japan, and Europe, which we expect to continue in the near-to-long term.
In 2022, we made progress to several enhancements to our CUSA Clarity Tissue Ablation System. The extended laparoscopic tip was launched in the U.S. to enhance laparoscopic liver procedures. In addition, a single-sided bone tip received 510(k) clearance. Commercial launch is expected in the first quarter of 2023. We continue to update our CUSA Clarity platform by incorporating new ultrasonic handpiece and integrated electrosurgical capabilities.
Moreover, we are expanding into minimally invasive surgery ("MIS") and the surgical management of intracerebral hemorrhages ("ICH"), with the 2021 clinical launch of Aurora® Surgiscope®, a proprietary surgical solution with integrated visualization and capabilities designed specifically for use in deep-seated brain lesions. We continue to gather clinical evidence using this same technology for early surgical intervention of ICH. We believe this technology offers the promise of transforming the standard of care in neurosurgery. In 2022, we launched the Aurora® Evacuator with Coagulation device in the U.S., designed to be used in conjunction with our Aurora Surgiscope to safely address and evacuate blood in the brain caused by hemorrhagic stroke. 
Rounding out the portfolio is a catalog of surgical headlamps and surgical instrumentation, as well as after-market service. With thousands of surgical instrument products, including specialty surgical instruments, we call on the central sterile processing unit of hospitals and acute care surgical centers. Additionally, through a strong U.S. distribution model, we serve the needs of hundreds of medical offices.
We also expanded our product offerings in 2021 with the launch of our new intracranial pressure ("ICP") monitoring system, CereLink® in the U.S. and Europe and continued the global rollout in the first half of 2022. See additional discussion regarding certain matters with CereLink under "Item 1A. Risk Factors" under the heading Risks Related to our Regulatory Environment
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and under "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - General - FDA Matters" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our global commercial network includes clinical specialists, a large direct global sales force and strategic partnerships and distributors that serve hospitals, integrated health networks, group purchasing organizations, clinicians, surgery centers and health care providers.
Tissue Technologies
The Tissue Technologies segment consists of five unique regenerative technology areas - highly engineered bovine collagen, bovine dermis, porcine urinary bladder, human amniotic tissue, and resorbable synthetic mesh. This broad regenerative platform, which includes multiple leading brands such as Integra® Dermal Matrices, AmnioExcel®, SurgiMend®, MicroMatrix® and NeuraGen®, primarily addresses the needs of plastic, reconstructive and general surgeons focused on the treatment of acute wounds, such as burns, chronic wounds, including diabetic foot ulcers, and surgical tissue repair, such as hernia, tendon, peripheral nerve repair and protection. During 2022, we completed the acquisition of Surgical Innovation Associates, Inc. ("SIA"), which is seeking approval by the U.S Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") of the PMA application for its core technology, DuraSorb, for use in IBBR.
We have a specialized sales organization composed of directly employed sales representatives, as well as specialty distributors, organized based upon their call point. Our wound reconstruction sales representatives call on surgeons doing procedures in limb salvage, trauma, wound reconstruction and burns, chronic wounds primarily in the inpatient wound care clinic setting. We also have a dedicated surgical reconstruction sales team focused on plastic and reconstructive surgery and hernia procedures with differentiated products. Finally, we have a distributor network focused on biologics. Outside the U.S., we have a combination of direct and indirect sales channels in international markets to sell certain product lines.
This business segment also includes private-label sales of a broad set of our regenerative and wound care technologies. Our customers are other medical technology companies that sell to end markets primarily in spine, surgical and wound care.
We anticipate new product introductions and new clinical indications will continue to contribute to the growth of the segment. In 2022, we launched NeuraGen® 3D Nerve Guide Matrix, a resorbable implant for repair of peripheral nerve discontinuities and engineered to create an optimized environment for nerve regeneration. In the third quarter of 2021, we filed the PMA application for a specific indication for SurgiMend in the use of post-mastectomy breast reconstruction, for which we hope to obtain FDA approval in 2024.
COMPETITION
Our competitors for CSS are Medtronic, Inc., Stryker Corporation, Becton Dickinson and Company, and B. Braun Medical, Inc. In addition, we compete with many smaller specialized companies and larger companies that do not otherwise focus on the offerings of Codman Specialty Surgical technologies. We rely on the depth and breadth of our sales and marketing organization, our innovative technologies, and our procurement and manufacturing operations to maintain our competitive position.
Our competition for TT includes Smith & Nephew plc, Organogenesis Holdings Inc., MiMedx Group, Inc., Allergan PLC, Becton Dickinson and Company, and Axogen, Inc. We compete with many additional companies who partially participate in soft tissue reconstruction of complex wounds, peripheral nerve repair and surgical reconstruction. In addition, our products also compete against medical practices that treat a condition without using a medical device or any particular product, such as medical practices that utilize autograft tissue instead of our dermal regeneration products, duraplasty products and nerve repair products. Depending on the product line, we compete based on our products' features, strength of our sales force or distributors, sophistication of our technology and cost effectiveness of our solution.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
Our research and development activities focus on identifying unmet surgical needs and addressing those needs with innovative solutions and products. We apply our core competency in regenerative technology to innovate products for neurosurgical, wound applications, plastic surgery, and reconstructive surgery and we have extensive R&D development programs for our core platforms of electromechanical technologies. Additionally, we conduct products and clinical studies to generate efficacy and health economic evidence.
Regenerative Technologies. Integra was the first company to receive a FDA claim for regeneration of dermal tissue and is a world leader in regenerative technology. Because regenerative technology products represent a fast-growing, high-margin opportunity for us, we allocate a large portion of our research and development budget to these projects. Our regenerative technology development program applies our expertise in bioengineering to a range of biomaterials including natural materials such as purified collagen, intact human or animal tissues, honey as well as resorbable synthetic polymers with our DuraSorb and DuraSeal product lines. These unique product designs are used for neurosurgical and reconstructive surgical applications, as well as dermal regeneration, including the healing of chronic and acute wounds, tendon and nerve repair. Our regenerative
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technology platform includes our legacy Integra® Dermal Regeneration Template ("IDRT") products and complementary technologies that we have acquired. Our collagen manufacturing capability, combined with our history of innovation, including our launch of NeuraGen 3D, provides us with strong platform technologies for multiple indications.
In 2020, we announced positive clinical and economic data on Integra® Bilayer Wound Matrix ("IBWM") in complex lower extremity reconstruction based on two retrospective studies recently published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, the official journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. As surgeons look for ways to efficiently and effectively repair and close wounds, IBWM helps address the efficiency needed in operating rooms by reducing both the operating time and costs to hospitals and patients. In 2021, we completed one of the largest diabetic foot ulcers ("DFU"), randomized controlled trials of the PriMatrix® Dermal Repair Scaffold for the management of DFU. This multi-center study enrolled more than 225 patients with chronic DFU's over the course of 12-week treatments and 4-week follow-up phases. The results of this study, which was published in the Journal of Wound Care, demonstrated that PriMatrix plus standard of care ("SOC") consisting of sharp debridement, infection elimination, use of dressings and offloading was significantly more likely to achieve complete wound closure compared with SOC alone, with a median number of one application of the product. Integra is currently pursuing pre-market approval for implant-based breast reconstruction with our Surgimend product. In 2022, we acquired SIA, which is also pursuing a pre-market approval for IBBR. By offering two distinct product solutions, we believe we have the opportunity to build a leading position in the market. We completed design control activities in 2022 for a Q1 2023 launch of Cytal and MicroMatrix in Europe and a pilot launch of the Cardion Pericardial Patch to gain clinical experience for finding a private label partner for that product.
Electromechanical Technologies and Instrumentation. Because our electromechanical products and instruments address significant needs in surgical procedures and limit uncertainty for surgeons, we continue to invest in approvals for new indications and next generation improvements to our market-leading products. We have several active programs focused on life cycle management and innovation for capital and disposable products in our portfolio. Our product development efforts are focused on core clinical applications in cerebrospinal fluid ("CSF") management, neuro-critical care monitoring, minimally invasive instruments and electrosurgery and ultrasonic medical technologies, as well as our ambition to transform the standard of care in neurosurgery with product advancements in MIS and ICH. Our lighting franchise is among the most dynamic in the industry.
We are focused on the development of core clinical applications in our electromechanical technologies portfolio. In 2022, we made progress to several enhancements to our CUSA Clarity Tissue Ablation System. The extended laparoscopic tip was launched in the U.S. to enhance laparoscopic liver procedures. In addition, a single-sided bone tip received 510(k) approval. Commercial launch is expected in the first quarter of 2023. We continue to update our CUSA Clarity platform by incorporating new ultrasonic handpiece and integrated electrosurgical capabilities. We continue to work with several instrument partners to bring new surgical instrument platforms to the market.
We are focused on the development of core clinical applications in our electromechanical technologies portfolio. In June 2022, we launched the Neutus® EVD system, our first external ventricular drain (“EVD") in China. The Neutus EVD system is manufactured in China by Shanghai Haoju Medical Technology Co., Ltd. under an exclusive distribution arrangement. The device is used in the management of cerebrospinal fluid and is highly complementary to our Bactiseal® catheter and advanced intercranial pressure monitoring products.
In the third quarter of 2021, we launched our CereLink ICP Monitor System in the U.S. and Europe and continued the global rollout in the first half of 2022. On August 18, 2022, the Company, after consultation with the FDA and other regulatory authorities outside of the United States, initiated an immediate voluntary global product removal of all CereLink® intracranial pressure monitors. See Item 1A. Risk Factors, under the heading Risks Related to our Regulatory Environment and under Item 7. General Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - FDA Matters of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further discussion.
In 2022, we continued to advance the early-stage technology platforms we acquired in 2019. Through the acquisition of Arkis Biosciences, Inc. ("Arkis") we added a platform technology, CerebroFlo® external ventricular drainage ("EVD"), catheter with Endexo® technology, a permanent additive designed to reduce the potential for catheter obstruction due to thrombus formation. The CerebroFlo EVD Catheter has demonstrated an average of 99% less thrombus accumulation onto its surface, in vitro, compared to a market leading EVD catheter. Our work to combine our bactiseal antimicrobial technology with the Endexo anti-occlusive technology obtained through our 2019 acquisition of Arkis continues to progress for both a silicone-based hydrocephalus and EVD project.

In 2019, we also acquired Rebound Therapeutics Corporation ("Rebound Therapeutics"), a company that specialized in single-use medical device, known as Aurora Surgiscope, which is the only tubular retractor system designed for cranial surgery with an integrated access channel, camera and lighting. In the third quarter of 2021, we conducted a limited clinical launch of the Aurora Surgiscope for use in minimally invasive neurosurgery as well as initiated a registry called MIRROR to collect data on early surgical intervention using this same technology platform for the treatment of ICH. In 2022, we launched the Aurora®
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Evacuator with Coagulation device in the U.S., designed to be used in conjunction with our Aurora Surgiscope to safely address and evacuate blood in the brain caused by hemorrhagic stroke. 

RESOURCES
In general, raw materials essential to our businesses are readily available from multiple sources. For reasons of quality assurance, availability, or cost effectiveness, certain components and raw materials are available only from a sole supplier. Our practice is to maintain sufficient inventory of components so that our production will not be significantly disrupted even if a particular component or material is not available for a period of time.
Certain of our products, including but not limited to our dermal regeneration products, duraplasty products, wound care products, and nerve and tendon repair products, contain material derived from bovine tissue. We take great care to provide products that are safe and free of agents that can cause disease. In particular, the collagen used in the products that we manufacture is derived from the deep flexor tendon of cattle less than 24 months old from New Zealand, a country that has never had a reported case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("BSE") (otherwise known as mad cow disease), from the U.S. or from fetal bovine dermis. The World Health Organization classifies different types of cattle tissue for relative risk of BSE transmission. Deep flexor tendon and fetal bovine skin are in the lowest-risk category for BSE transmission, and therefore considered to have a negligible risk of containing the agent that causes BSE.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
We seek patent and trademark protection for our key technology, products and product improvements, both in the U.S. and in selected foreign countries. When determined appropriate, we have enforced and plan to continue to enforce and defend our patent and trademark rights. In general, however, we do not rely solely on our patent and trademark estate to provide us with any significant competitive advantages as it relates to our existing product lines. We also rely upon trade secrets and continuing technological innovations to develop and maintain our competitive position. In an effort to protect our trade secrets, we have a policy requiring our employees, consultants and advisors to execute proprietary information and invention assignment agreements upon commencement of employment or consulting relationships with us. These agreements also provide that all confidential information developed or made known to the individual during the course of their relationship with us must be kept confidential, except in specified circumstances.
AccuDrain®, AmnioExcel®, Aquasonic®, Auragen®, Aurora® Surgiscope®, Bactiseal®, BioDFence®, BioDOptix®, Brainet®, Budde®, Buzz™, CereLink®, CerebroFlo® EVD Catheter with Endexo® Technology, Codman®, Codman Accu-Flo®, Codman Bicol®, Codman® Certas® Plus, Codman® Hakim®Programmable valve, Codman Holter®, Codman ICP Express®, Codman Microsensor®, Codman VersaTru®, Codman VPV®, Contour-Flex®, Cranioplastic®, CRW®, CRW Precision™, Ctherm™, CUSA®, Cytal®, DirectLink®, DuraGen®, DuraSeal®, DuraSorb®, Gentrix®, HeliCote®, HeliPlug®, HeliTape®, HeliMend®, Helistat®, Helitene®, Hermetic™, Hy-Tape®, Integra®, IntegraLink®, Isocool®, Jarit®, Lead-Lok™, Licox®, LimiTorr™, Luxtec®, Mayfield®, MatriStem UBM™, MediHone, MicroFrance®, MicroMatrix®, Miltex®, Mischler™, MoniTorr ICP™, Natus®, NeuraGen®, NeuraWrap™, Nicolet®, Omnigraft®, Omni-Tract®, OSV II®, Padgett®, PriMatrix®, Pureflow™, Q-Snor™, Redmond™, Revize™, Ruggles®, Signacreme®, SurgiMend®, TCC-EZ®, TenoGlide®, TissueMend®, Ultra VS™, VersaTru®, Xtrasorb®, zRIP™, and the Integra logo are some of the material trademarks of Integra LifeSciences Corporation and its subsidiaries. MAYFIELD® is a registered trademark of SM USA, Inc., and is used by Integra under license.
SEASONALITY
Revenues during our fourth quarter tend to be stronger than other quarters because many hospitals increase their purchases of our products during the fourth quarter to coincide with the end of their budget cycles in the U.S. In general, our first quarter usually has lower revenues than the preceding fourth quarter, the second and third quarters have higher revenues than the first quarter, and the fourth quarter revenues are the highest in the year. The main exceptions to this pattern occur because of material acquisitions as well as impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.
GOVERNMENT REGULATION AND COMPLIANCE
We are a manufacturer and marketer of medical devices and Human Tissue and Cell Based Products ("HCT/Ps") and therefore are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA, the Center for Medicare Services of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, other federal governmental agencies and, in some jurisdictions, by state and foreign governmental authorities. These regulations govern the introduction of new medical devices and HCT/Ps, the observance of certain standards with respect to the design, manufacture, testing, labeling, promotion and sales of the products, the maintenance of certain records, the ability to track devices, the reporting of potential product defects, the import and export of products, and other matters.
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United States Food and Drug Administration
Our products are subject to extensive regulation particularly as to safety, efficacy and adherence to FDA Quality System Regulation, and related manufacturing standards. Medical device products are subject to rigorous FDA and other governmental agency regulations in the United States and similar regulations of foreign agencies abroad. The FDA regulates the design, development, research, preclinical and clinical testing, introduction, manufacture, advertising, labeling, packaging, marketing, distribution, import and export, and record keeping for such products, in order to ensure that medical products distributed in the United States are safe and effective for their intended use. In addition, the FDA is authorized to establish special controls to provide reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of most devices. Non-compliance with applicable requirements can result in import detentions, fines, civil and administrative penalties, injunctions, suspensions or losses of regulatory approvals, recall or seizure of products, operating restrictions, refusal of the government to approve product export applications or allow us to enter into supply contracts, and criminal prosecution. The regulatory process for obtaining product approvals and clearances can be onerous and costly. The FDA requires, as a condition to marketing a medical device in the U.S., that we secure a Premarket Notification clearance pursuant to Section 510(k) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (the "FD&C Act"), or an approved PMA application (or supplemental PMA application). Obtaining these approvals and clearances can take up to several years and may involve preclinical studies and clinical trials. The FDA also may require a post-approval clinical study as a condition of approval. To perform clinical trials for significant risk devices in the U.S. on an unapproved product, we are required to obtain an Investigational Device Exemption from the FDA. The FDA also may require a filing for approval prior to marketing products that are modifications of existing products or new indications for existing products. Moreover, after clearance/approval is given, if the product is shown to be hazardous or defective, the FDA and foreign regulatory agencies have the power to withdraw the clearance or approval, as the case may be, or require us to change the device, its manufacturing process or its labeling, to supply additional proof of its safety and effectiveness or to recall, repair, replace or refund the cost of the medical device. Because we currently export medical devices manufactured in the U.S. that have not been approved by the FDA for distribution in the U.S., we are required to obtain approval/registration in the country to which we are exporting and maintain certain records relating to exports and make these available to the FDA for inspection, if required.
Human Cells, Tissues and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products
Integra, through its wholly-owned subsidiary BioD LLC ("BioD"), is involved with the recovery, processing, storage, transportation and distribution of donated amniotic tissue. The FDA has specific regulations governing HCT/Ps. An HCT/P is a product containing, or consisting of, human cells or tissue intended for transplantation into a human patient. Examples of HCT/Ps include bone, ligament, skin and cornea.
Some HCT/Ps fall within the definition of a biological product, medical device or drug regulated under the FD&C Act. These biologic, device or drug HCT/Ps must comply both with the requirements exclusively applicable to HCT/Ps and, in addition, with requirements applicable to biologics, devices or drugs, including premarket clearance or approval from the FDA.
Section 361 of the Public Health Service Act ("Section 361") authorizes the FDA to issue regulations to prevent the introduction, transmission or spread of communicable disease. HCT/Ps regulated as “361” HCT/Ps are subject to requirements relating to registering facilities and listing products with the FDA, screening and testing for tissue donor eligibility, and Good Tissue Practices when processing, storing, labeling, and distributing HCT/Ps, including required labeling information, stringent record keeping, and adverse event reporting.
The American Association of Tissue Banks ("AATB") has issued operating standards for tissue banking. Compliance with these standards is a requirement in order to become an AATB-accredited tissue establishment. In addition, some states have their own tissue banking regulations. We are licensed or have permits for tissue banking in California, Delaware, Illinois, Maryland, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. In Tennessee, we are registered with the FDA Center for Biological Evaluations and Research.
Procurement of certain human organs and tissue for transplantation is subject to the restrictions of the National Organ Transplant Act, which prohibits the transfer of certain human organs, including skin and related tissue for valuable consideration, but permits the reasonable payment associated with the removal, transportation, implantation, processing, preservation, quality control and storage of human tissue and skin. BioD is a registered Tissue Bank and is involved with the recovery, storage and transportation of donated human amniotic tissue.
On June 22, 2015, the FDA issued an Untitled Letter (the "Untitled Letter") alleging that BioD's morselized amniotic membrane tissue-based products do not meet the criteria for regulation as HCT/Ps solely under Section 361 and that, as a result, BioD would need a biologics license to lawfully market those morselized products. Since the issuance of the Untitled Letter, BioD and the Company has made known to the FDA their disagreement with the FDA’s assertion that certain products are more than minimally manipulated. The FDA has not changed its position that certain of the BioD acquired products are not eligible for marketing solely under Section 361. In July 2020, the FDA issued the final guidance document related to human tissue titled, “Regulatory Considerations for Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products: Minimal Manipulation and Homologous Use” (the “2020 HCT/P Final Guidance”). The 2020 HCT/P Final Guidance document supersedes the November 2017 guidance by the same title.
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The HCT/P Final Guidance maintains the FDA’s position that products such as the Company’s morselized amniotic membrane tissue-based products do not meet the criteria for regulation solely as HCT/Ps. In addition, in the November 2017 guidance, the FDA articulated a risk-based approach to enforcement and, while some uses for amniotic membrane tissue-based products would have as much as thirty-six months of enforcement discretion, other high risk uses could be subject to immediate enforcement action. The 2020 HCT/P Final Guidance maintained this approach and extended the discretionary enforcement period to May 31, 2021.
Considering the risk of enforcement action, the Company discontinued the manufacturing of all morselized amniotic membrane tissue-based products prior to May 31, 2021. We no longer distribute these products. As of December 31, 2022, the Company has not received any further notice of enforcement action from the FDA regarding its morselized amniotic membrane tissue-based products.
Medical Device Regulations
Unless an exemption applies, the FDA requires that a manufacturer introducing a new medical device or a new indication for use of an existing medical device obtain either a Section 510(k) premarket notification clearance or a PMA, before introducing it into the U.S. market. The type of marketing authorization is generally linked to the classification of the device. The FDA classifies medical devices into one of three classes (Class I, II or III) based on the degree of risk the FDA determines to be associated with a device and the level of regulatory control deemed necessary to ensure the device’s safety and effectiveness.
The process of obtaining a Section 510(k) clearance generally requires the submission of performance data and often clinical data, which in some cases can be extensive, to demonstrate that the device is “substantially equivalent” to a device that was on the market before 1976 or to a device that has been found by the FDA to be “substantially equivalent” to such a pre-1976 device, a predecessor device is referred to as “predicate device.” As a result, FDA clearance requirements may extend the development process for a considerable length of time. In addition, in some cases, the FDA may require additional review by an advisory panel, which can further lengthen the process. The PMA process, which is reserved for new devices that are not substantially equivalent to any predicate device and for high-risk devices or those that are used to support or sustain human life, may take several years and requires the submission of extensive performance and clinical information.
Medical devices can be marketed only for the indications for which they are cleared or approved. After a device has received 510(k) clearance for a specific intended use, any change or modification that significantly affects its safety or effectiveness, such as a significant change in the design, materials, method of manufacture or intended use, may require a new 510(k) clearance or PMA approval and payment of an FDA user fee. The determination as to whether or not a modification could significantly affect the device’s safety or effectiveness is initially left to the manufacturer using available FDA guidance; however, the FDA may review this determination to evaluate the regulatory status of the modified product at any time and may require the manufacturer to cease marketing and recall the modified device until 510(k) clearance or PMA approval is obtained. The manufacturer may also be subject to significant regulatory fines or penalties.
We also are required to register with the FDA as a medical device manufacturer and any devices we manufacture and distribute pursuant to clearance or approval by the FDA are subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by the FDA and certain state agencies. These include product listing and establishment registration requirements, which help facilitate FDA inspections and other regulatory actions, and our manufacturing sites are subject to periodic inspection by the FDA for compliance with the FDA's Quality System Regulations. These regulations require that we manufacture our products and maintain our documents in a prescribed manner with respect to design, manufacturing, testing and control activities. Further, we are required to comply with various FDA requirements and other legal requirements for labeling and promotion. If the FDA believes that a company is not in compliance with applicable regulations, it may issue a warning letter, institute proceedings to detain or seize products, issue a recall order, impose operating restrictions, enjoin future violations and assess civil penalties against that company, its officers or its employees and may recommend criminal prosecution to the U.S. Department of Justice. All Integra manufacturing facilities participate in the Medical Device Single Audit Program and are audited annually for compliance with the Quality System for US FDA, Canada, Australia, Brazil, and Japan.
Medical device regulations also are in effect in many of the countries in which we do business outside the U.S. In the European Economic Area ("EEA"), which is comprised of the 27 member states of the European Union plus Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein, medical devices need to comply with specific requirements. These requirements were previously known as "Essential Requirements" under the former EU Medical Devices Directive (Council Directive 93/42/EEC, or MDD) and are now defined "General Safety and Performance Requirements (GSPR)" under the new EU Medical Devices Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2017/745, or "EU MDR"). Although the requirements set forth in the EU MDR are generally consistent with those laid out in the MDD (with a few exceptions), the EU MDR is intended, among other things, to establish a uniform, transparent, predictable and sustainable regulatory framework across the EEA for medical devices and ensure a high level of safety and health while supporting innovation. These laws range from comprehensive medical device approval and Quality System requirements for some or all of our medical device products to simpler requests for product data or certifications. Under the European Union Medical Device Directive, medical devices must meet the Medical Device Directive standards and receive
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CE Mark Certification prior to marketing in the EEA. Although we continue to transition our certification profile to meet the new EU MDR requirements, these stricter regulations set forth in the EU MDR may pose additional challenges for Integra to continue marketing products in the EU as these regulations come into force. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors - We are subject to stringent domestic and foreign medical device regulations and oversight and any adverse action may adversely affect our ability to compete in the marketplace and our financial condition and business operations” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
CE Mark Certification requires a comprehensive quality system program, technical documentation, clinical evaluation and data on the product which are then reviewed, by a Notified Body. A Notified Body is an organization designated by the national governments of the EU member states to make independent judgments about whether a product complies with the requirements established by each CE marking directive. The Medical Device Directive, Medical Device Regulation, ISO 9000 series and ISO 13485 are recognized international quality standards that are designed to ensure that we develop and manufacture quality medical devices. Other countries are also instituting regulations regarding medical devices or interpreting and enforcing existing regulations more strictly. Compliance with these regulations requires extensive documentation and clinical reports for our products, revisions to labeling, and other requirements such as facility inspections to comply with the registration requirements. A recognized Notified Body audits our facilities annually to verify our compliance with the ISO 13485 Quality System standard.
Certain countries, as well as the EU, have issued regulations that govern products that contain materials derived from animal sources. Regulatory authorities are particularly concerned with materials infected with the agent that causes BSE. These regulations affect our dermal regeneration products, duraplasty products, hernia repair products, biomaterial products for the spine, nerve and tendon repair products and certain other products, all of which contain material derived from bovine tissue. Although we take great care to provide that our products are safe and free of agents that can cause disease, products that contain materials derived from animals, including our products, may become subject to additional regulation, or even be banned in certain countries, because of concern over the potential for prion transmission. Significant new regulations, a ban of our products, or a movement away from bovine-derived products because of an outbreak of BSE could have a material, adverse effect on our current business or our ability to expand our business. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors – Risks Related to our Regulatory Environment" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Postmarket Requirements. After a device is cleared or approved for commercial distribution, numerous regulatory requirements apply. These include the FDA Quality System Regulations which cover the procedures and documentation of the design, testing, production, control, quality assurance, labeling, packaging, sterilization, storage and shipping of medical devices; the FDA's general prohibition against promoting products for unapproved or 'off-label' uses; the Medical Device Reporting regulation, which requires that manufacturers report to the FDA if their device may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or malfunctioned in a way that would likely cause or contribute to a death or serious injury if it were to recur; and the Reports of Corrections and Removals regulation, which require manufacturers to report recalls and field corrective actions to the FDA if initiated to reduce a risk to health posed by the device or to remedy a violation of the FD&C Act. Postmarket requirements are also followed globally where our products are registered and approved. These foreign jurisdictions have similar requirements to the FDA which include reporting requirements such as adverse events and recalls.
Other regulations
Anti-Bribery Laws. In the U.S., we are subject to laws and regulations pertaining to healthcare fraud and abuse, including anti-kickback laws and physician self-referral laws that regulate the means by which companies in the health care industry may market their products to hospitals and health care professionals and may compete by discounting the prices of their products. Similar anti-bribery laws exist in many of the countries in which we sell our products outside the U.S., as well as the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (which addresses the activities of U.S. companies in foreign markets). Our products also are subject to regulation regarding reimbursement, and U.S. healthcare laws apply when a customer submits a claim for a product that is reimbursed under a federally funded healthcare program. These global laws require that we exercise care in designing our sales and marketing practices, including interactions with healthcare professionals, and customer discount arrangements. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors – We are exposed to a variety of risks relating to our international sales and operations” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details.
Import-export. Our international operations subject us to laws regarding sanctioned countries, entities and persons, customs, and import-export. Among other things, these laws restrict, and in some cases can prevent, U.S. companies from directly or indirectly selling goods, technology or services to people or entities in certain countries. In addition, these laws require that we exercise care in our business dealings with entities in and from foreign countries.
Hazardous materials. Our research, development and manufacturing processes involve the controlled use of certain hazardous materials. We are subject to country-specific, federal, state and local laws and regulations governing the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of these materials and certain waste products. We believe that our environmental, health and safety procedures for handling and disposing of these materials comply with the standards prescribed by the controlling laws and regulations. However, risk of accidental releases or injury from these materials is possible. These risks are managed to minimize or eliminate associated business impacts. In the event of this type of accident, we could be held liable for damages
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and face a liability that could exceed our resources. We could be subject to a regulatory shutdown of a facility that could prevent the distribution and sale of products manufactured there for a significant period of time, and we could suffer a casualty loss that could require a shutdown of the facility in order to repair it, any of which could have a material, adverse effect on our business. Although we continuously strive to maintain full compliance with respect to all applicable global environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could incur substantial costs to fully comply with future laws and regulations, and our operations, business or assets may be negatively affected. Furthermore, global environmental, health and safety compliance is an ongoing process. Integra has compliance procedures in place for compliance with Employee Health & Safety laws, driven by a centrally led organizational structure that ensures proper implementation, which is essential to our overall business objectives.
In addition to the above regulations, we are, and may be, subject to regulation under country-specific federal and state laws, including, but not limited to, requirements regarding record keeping, and the maintenance of personal information, including personal health information. As a public Company, we are subject to the securities laws and regulations, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. We also are subject to other present and could be subject to possible future, local, state, federal and foreign regulations.
Third-Party Reimbursement. Healthcare providers that purchase medical devices generally rely on third-party payors, including, in the U.S., the Medicare and Medicaid programs and private payors, such as indemnity insurers, employer group health insurance programs and managed care plans, to reimburse all or part of the cost of the products. As a result, demand for our products is and will continue to be dependent in part on the coverage and reimbursement policies of these payors. The manner in which reimbursement is sought and obtained varies based upon the type of payor involved and the setting in which the product is furnished and utilized. Reimbursement from Medicare, Medicaid and other third-party payors may be subject to periodic adjustments as a result of legislative, regulatory and policy changes, as well as budgetary pressures. Possible reductions in, or eliminations of, coverage or reimbursement by third-party payors, or denial of, or provision of uneconomical reimbursement for new products may affect our customers' revenue and ability to purchase our products. Any changes in the healthcare regulatory, payment or enforcement landscape relative to our customers' healthcare services have the potential to significantly affect our operations and revenue.
Data Privacy and Cybersecurity Laws and Regulations. As a business with a significant global footprint, compliance with evolving regulations and standards in data privacy and cybersecurity (relating to the confidentiality and security of our information technology systems, products such as medical devices, and other services provided by us) may result in increased costs, lower revenue, new complexities in compliance, new challenges for competition, and the threat of increased regulatory enforcement activity. Our business relies on the secure electronic transmission, storage and hosting of sensitive information, including personal information, financial information, intellectual property, and other sensitive information related to our customers and workforce.
For example, in the U.S., the collection, maintenance, protection, use, transmission, disclosure and disposal of certain personal information and the security of medical devices are regulated at the U.S. federal and state, and industry levels. U.S. federal and state laws protect the confidentiality of certain patient health information, including patient medical records, and restrict the use and disclosure of patient health information by health care providers. For example, in the U.S. we are obligated to comply with the requirements of the Health Insurance and Portability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 (collectively, “HIPPA”). Under HIPAA, the Department of Health and Human Services has issued regulations, including the HIPAA Privacy, Security and Breach Notification Rules, to protect the privacy and security of protected health information used or disclosed by covered entities including health care providers and their business associates, as well as covered subcontractors. HIPAA also regulates standardization of data content, codes and formats used in health care transactions and standardization of identifiers for health plans and providers. Penalties for violations of HIPAA regulations include significant civil and criminal penalties for each violation. In addition, the FDA has issued guidance advising manufacturers to take cybersecurity risks into account in product design for connected medical devices and systems, to assure that appropriate safeguards are in place to reduce the risk of unauthorized access or modification to medical devices that contain software and reduce the risk of introducing threats into hospital systems that are connected to such devices. The FDA also issued guidance on post market management of cyber security in medical devices.
Outside the U.S., we are impacted by the privacy and data security requirements at the international, national and regional level, and on an industry specific basis. Legal requirements in these countries relating to the collection, storage, handling and transfer of personal data and, potentially, intellectual property continue to evolve with increasingly strict enforcement regimes. In Europe, for example, we are subject to EU General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") which requires member states to impose minimum restrictions on the collection, use and transfer of personal data and includes, among other things, a requirement for prompt notice of data breaches to data subjects and supervisory authorities in certain circumstances and significant fines for non-compliance. The GDPR also requires companies processing personal data of individuals residing in the EU to comply with EU privacy and data protection rules.
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Please refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors – We are subject to requirements relating to information technology which could adversely affect our business” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional discussion of the risks accompanying compliance with data privacy and cybersecurity laws and regulations.
These laws and regulations impact the ways in which we use and manage personal data, protected health information, and our information technology systems. They also impact our ability to move, store, and access data across geographic boundaries. Compliance with these requirements may require changes in business practices, complicate our operations, and add complexity and additional management and oversight needs. They also may complicate our clinical research activities, as well as product offerings that involve transmission or use of clinical data.
HUMAN CAPITAL
Workforce Demographics
As of December 31, 2022, we had approximately 3,722 regular full and part time employees and 874 contingent, subcontracted, and outsourced partners.
70% of our employees are located in the United States, 21% in Europe, 2% in Latin America and Canada and 7% in Asia Pacific which includes Australia and New Zealand.

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Diversity and Inclusion
A diverse workforce and an inclusive culture and work environment is a business priority and a key to our long-term success. Our commitment to diversity and inclusion starts at the top with our Board of Directors and CEO. At all levels of the Company, we focus on attracting, retaining, and developing our diverse talent.

Leadership Commitment and Accountability

Executive leadership set diversity and inclusion goals for the Company on an annual basis. Advancing diversity and inclusion initiatives to build stronger teams has been a company-wide goal and the direct engagement of executive leadership in advancing diversity and inclusion initiatives helps to promote awareness throughout the Company.

Leadership Councils, Employee Resource Groups and External Partnerships

We are accountable to our diversity commitment through our leadership councils, employee resource groups, and external partnerships.
The Women’s Leadership Council, established in 2017 and chaired by our President & Chief Executive Officer, Jan De Witte, is a results-oriented advisory group comprised of ten of our senior women leaders across Integra. The
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specific charter of the Council is to work together to identify ways to continue to attract and retain female talent, advance the development of our women into leadership roles, increase the cultural awareness of the value of inclusion and diversity in our Company, and create specific development forums for our high performing women at Integra.

Employee Resources Groups encourage a culture of awareness and inclusion, assist in the attraction and retention of diverse talent, and help colleagues develop leadership skills. Members of the Executive Leadership Team serve as sponsors for each of Integra’s employee resource groups. Integra currently has six Employee Resources Groups:
Women of Integra Networks (WIN) with 20+ chapters globally
African American Affinity Group
Veteran Employee Resource Group
Indian American Network
Asian American and Pacific Islander Network
Integra PRIDE (LGBTQ+ Employee Resource Group)

We reinforce our commitment to diversity by partnering with other organizations focused on driving inclusion in the workplace including the CEO Action for Diversity & Inclusion, the largest CEO-driven business commitment to advance diversity and inclusion in the work place and Healthcare Businesswomen’s Association, an association dedicated to further the advancement and impact of women in the business of healthcare.

Promoting an inclusive culture through learning opportunities

To help drive our culture of inclusion, our colleagues participate in programs focused on how to manage bias, value differences, and develop inclusive leadership skills.
Members of our executive leadership, senior management team, and larger scope leaders participated in a ½ day Microinequities training. The content includes understanding unconscious bias and microinequities, how to identify microinequities in day-to-day decisions and actions as leaders, and ways to mitigate microinequities on an individual and organizational level.
In 2020, we launched two foundational programs to promote diversity and inclusion: Introduction to Managing Unconscious Bias, a course that creates awareness of unconscious biases in the workplaces and tools to build-bias breaking skills and Practicing Inclusion which examines what practicing inclusion in the workplace looks like. These trainings are now mandatory for all new Integra hires.
We regularly provide educational content and resources to aid our colleagues as they build cultural competency and inclusive leadership skills

Gender Diversity

We believe that our company is stronger and will deliver strong operating results, when we build diverse teams and leverage broad perspectives to meet the needs of our shareholders, customers, colleagues, and communities we serve.

The breakout of our colleagues by gender:

48% of Integra’s overall population is female, 52% male. We continue to strive to ensure our diversity in our leadership ranks is representative of our overall population. Through mentorship, sponsorship, recruitment efforts, and development programs we look to continue to grow our population of females in leadership roles at Integra. Currently, 38% of our executive leaders and 43% of senior leaders (non-executive vice presidents) are female.
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In partnership with Leadership Edge, a company founded by women leaders and dedicated to growing and mentoring women. Integra sponsors the Excel Women’s Leadership Program. The program is designed to accelerate the development and advancement of high potential, mid-career female leaders into senior leadership roles. The program has assisted in further building our pipeline of women leaders with 60% of the program’s graduates being promoted into roles with increased responsibility.

Compensation and Benefits

Our compensation philosophy is designed to reinforce and align with our mission, business strategy, and financial needs. We invest in the physical, emotional and financial well-being of our employees through our robust compensation and benefit programs. We provide market-competitive compensation and benefits based on benchmarking surveys we conduct regularly for all position levels against relevant peer companies. Our annual and long-term incentive packages are linked directly to business and individual performance, with a balance of short- and long-term financial and strategic objectives. We have an employee stock purchase plan. Eligibility for non-salary benefits such as salary continuance, life insurance, health insurance, and similar benefits, follows local regulations and practices.

Integra is a pay-for-performance company committed to fair pay. All compensation decisions are made without regard to personal characteristics such as, but not limited to, gender, race, color, national or ethnic origin, age, disability, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, genetic information, religion, or veteran status. As part of our commitment to compensation equity, Integra regularly conducts a pay equity analysis, reviewing how our organization compensates employees against external and internal data in conjunction with the role and scope of each position and making adjustments if necessary.

Talent Development and Retention

We have comprehensive and effective human capital development programs in place because we believe that the personal success of our employees is critical to the overall success of our business. To build a diverse and talented organization, we have invested in honing our recruiting and hiring processes to attract top talent and engage new hires from the very beginning of their experience at Integra.

We offer a variety of opportunities for our employees to learn and grow. Continued learning and development is a critical component of employee job satisfaction, retention, and career advancement—and ultimately, a driver of business success. We encourage and promote experiential, collaborative, and formal learning programs. Employees are also encouraged to discuss with their managers the skills, training, and experience needed to grow and develop. In addition to several skills-based trainings
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available (technical, sales, leadership ability) to all employees, managers may recommend external job-specific development programs to employees. These programs are paid for directly by Integra.
Employee Health and Safety:
Integra is committed to providing a safe environment for all employees and visitors. We rely on our environmental, health and safety management systems as well as entrusting our managers to oversee and ensure health and safety at their respective sites and foster a workplace culture to achieve that end. We implement our approach globally by our systems and support at regional and country levels from colleagues that implement proper safety protocols, identify and correct hazards, and remain safety conscious at all times. Managers are expected to enforce health and safety regulations, including compliance with applicable federal, state and local laws. Our Environmental Health and Safety ("EH&S") organizational structure incorporates both workplace EH&S coordinators and compliance teams. We have developed an Incident Procedure Policy and General Safety Rules that guide our colleagues to improve our workplace environment, improve safety, and reduce risk and costs.

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, we have placed a high priority on employee health, providing resources to support our workforce. At the outset of the pandemic, we sought to protect the health and safety of our employees unable to work remotely, including those in research and development, quality, manufacturing, distribution and sales roles. Such measures included the institution of robust hygiene practices, distribution of personal protective equipment, and the adoption of increased sanitation and social distancing protocols. We continue to actively monitor the COVID-19 pandemic and its variants and respond based on guidance from U.S. and global health organizations, relevant governmental guidance, and evolving practices.

Employee Engagement & Wellbeing
We regularly seek employee feedback and sentiment about our workplace through global engagement surveys conducted on a bi-annual basis. After each survey is complete, we share detailed results with senior management and all employees within each department. Each function or division appoints survey administrators who work with their respective teams to understand the feedback and establish action items. We believe this process enables us to monitor employee engagement and create a continuously improving, satisfying work environment for our employees.

We are committed to improving the quality of life of our employees and their families. Our health and wellbeing programs differ by country and typical benefits include comprehensive health insurance, disability coverage, workplace accommodations, parental leave and other leaves of absence based on health or life events (e.g., bereavement), employee assistance programs, fitness reimbursement, and flu shots. We also provide on-demand health advocates to help employees navigate the health insurance system, access to digital health solutions, a weight management program, smoking cessation assistance, a substance use disorder helpline, a diabetes health program and other similar programs to drive healthy behaviors and awareness.

FINANCIAL INFORMATION ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC AREAS
Financial information about our geographical areas is set forth in our financial statements Note 16, Segment and Geographic Information, to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K).
AVAILABLE INFORMATION
We are subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (the “Exchange Act"). In accordance with the Exchange Act, we file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission, ("the SEC"). Our financial information may be viewed, including the information contained in this report, and other reports we file with the SEC, on the Internet, without charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we file them with the SEC, in the “SEC Filings” page of the Investor Relations section of our website at www.integralife.com. A copy may also be obtained for any of these reports, without charge, from our Investor Relations department, 1100 Campus Road, Princeton, NJ 08540. Alternatively, reports filed may be viewed or obtained through the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.
 
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
We have made statements in this report, including statements under “Business” and “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” that constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, ("the Securities Act"), and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions about us including, among other things:
the on-going and possible future effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated economic disruptions, including supply chain constraints and inflation, on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows;
general economic and business conditions, both nationally and in our international markets, including the effect of the continuing worldwide macroeconomic uncertainty;
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our expectations and estimates concerning future financial performance, financing plans and the impact of competition;
anticipated trends in our business;
anticipated demand for our products, particularly capital equipment;
our ability to produce and deliver products in sufficient quantities to meet sales demands;
our expectations concerning our ongoing restructuring, integration and manufacturing transfer and expansion activities;
existing and future regulations affecting our business, and enforcement of those regulations;
our failure to comply with the substantial regulation related to quality standards applicable to our manufacturing and quality processes could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations;
our ability to obtain additional debt and equity financing to fund capital expenditures, working capital requirements and acquisitions;
physicians' willingness to adopt our recently launched and planned products, third-party payors' willingness to provide or continue reimbursement for any of our products and our ability to secure regulatory approval for products in development;
initiatives launched by our competitors;
our ability to protect our intellectual property, including trade secrets;
our ability to complete acquisitions, integrate operations post-acquisition and maintain relationships with customers of acquired entities;
our ability to remediate all matters identified in FDA observations and warning letters that we received or may receive; and
other risk factors described in Item 1A. "Risk Factors" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Forward-looking statements can be identified by forward-looking words such as “believe,” “may,” “could,” “might,” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “seek,” “plan,” “expect,” “should,” “would” and similar expressions in this report. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. In light of these risks and uncertainties, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this report may not occur and actual results could differ materially from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
GLOBAL CHALLENGES AND MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS
The continuing worldwide macroeconomic and geopolitical uncertainty may adversely affect our business and prospects.
Global economic disruptions, including the COVID-19 pandemic, have continued to impact the global supply chain, primarily through constraints on raw materials and electronic components. Additionally, we have observed a reduction in both inbound and outbound transportation capacity as a result of port closures and delays associated with the pandemic, which is causing longer lead times in receiving raw materials, as well as increased freight costs. These highly competitive and constrained supply chain conditions are increasing our cost of sales, which has and may continue to adversely impact our profitability. Given the ongoing uncertainty regarding the duration and extent of the COVID-19 pandemic, we are uncertain as to the duration and extent of constraint on our supply chain and are unable to predict the extent to which it will affect our global operations.
Continued concerns about the systemic impact of potential long-term and wide-spread recession and geopolitical issues, including the war in Ukraine, have contributed to increased market volatility and diminished expectations for economic growth in the world. Our business and results of operations have been and may continue to be adversely impacted by changes in macroeconomic conditions, including inflation, rising interest rates and the accessibility of capital markets. Uncertainty about global economic conditions may also cause decreased demand for our products and services and increased competition, which could result in lower sales volume and downward pressure on the prices for our products, longer sales cycles, and slower adoption of new technologies. A weakening of macroeconomic conditions may also adversely affect our suppliers, which could result in interruptions in supply.
Market acceptance of our medical products in the U.S. and other countries is dependent upon the medical equipment purchasing and procurement practices of our customers, patient need for our products and procedures and the reimbursement of patients' medical expenses by government healthcare programs and third-party payors. The continuing uncertainty surrounding global economic conditions and financial markets may cause the purchasers of medical equipment to decrease their procurement activities. Economic uncertainty, an increase in unemployment rates, as well as increasing health insurance premiums, co-payments and deductibles may adversely affect demand for our products and procedures. Furthermore, governments and other third-party payors around the world facing tightening budgets could move to further reduce the reimbursement rates or the scope of coverage offered, which could adversely affect sales of our products.
Public health crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, have had, and could in the future have, a negative effect on our business.
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Our global operations and interactions with healthcare systems, providers and patients around the world expose us to risks associated with public health crises, including epidemics and pandemics such as COVID-19. In particular, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to cause significant volatility and uncertainty in the global and regional economies, leading to changes in consumer and business behavior, market fluctuations, materials and product shortages and restrictions on business and individual activities, all of which are materially impacting supply and demand in broad sectors of the world markets. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic, together with general macroeconomic conditions, have led to disruptions in the global supply chain, primarily through a lack of availability of raw materials and electronic components. We have experienced challenges associated with material and component availability for certain product lines, longer shipping and delivery times for raw materials and components, constrained logistics capacity related to the movement of our products, availability of skilled labor and increased costs of raw materials, components, labor, and freight and courier services. Regional COVID-19 case volumes (including those related to subsequent variants), actions taken by governmental authorities, private businesses and individuals, such as “shelter-in-place” orders and restrictions on travel and access to our customers or temporary closures of our facilities or the facilities of our suppliers, disruption and/or higher costs to the Company’s supply chain, staffing shortages in hospitals and labor constraints in our facilities, could further impact our gross margins and our ability to ship our products and supply our customers.
The emergence of new variants, vaccinations and public health measures are driving the pace of economic recovery unevenly in various regions. The direct and indirect disruptions caused by the pandemic and the responses of both governments and individuals could negatively impact the number of surgical and medical intervention procedures performed and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows. The extent to which fear of exposure to or actual effects of COVID-19, new variants, disease outbreak, epidemic or a similar widespread health concern impacts our business will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, such as the speed and extent of geographic spread of the disease, the duration of the outbreak, travel restrictions, the efficacy of vaccination and treatment; impact on the U.S. and international healthcare systems, the U.S. economy and worldwide economy; the timing, scope and effectiveness of U.S. and international governmental response; and the impact on the health, well-being and productivity of our employees.
RISKS RELATING TO OUR BUSINESS
Our operating results may fluctuate.
Our operating results, including components of operating results such as gross margin and operating expenses, may fluctuate from time to time, and such fluctuations could affect our stock price. Our operating results have fluctuated in the past and can be expected to do so from time to time in the future. Some of the factors that may cause these fluctuations include:
economic conditions worldwide, which could affect the ability of hospitals and other customers to purchase our products and could result in a reduction in elective and non-reimbursed operative procedures;
the impact of acquisitions, our ability to integrate acquisitions, and our restructuring activities including portfolio rationalization, and divestitures;
risks related to COVID-19 and other epidemics or similar widespread health concerns;
expenditures for major initiatives, including acquired businesses and integrations thereof and restructuring;
the timing of significant customer orders, which tend to increase in the fourth quarter coinciding with the end of budget cycles;
increased competition for a wide range of customers across all our product lines in the markets our products are sold;
market acceptance of our existing products, as well as products in development;
retention of current employees and recruiting of new employees in light of market competition for talent and relevant skills;
the timing of regulatory approvals as well as changes in country-specific regulatory requirements;
changes in the exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies of countries in which we do business;
changes in the variable interest rates of our debt instruments which could impact debt service requirements;
potential backorders, lost sales and expenses incurred in connection with product recalls or field corrective actions;
disruption of our operations and sales resulting from extreme weather conditions or natural disasters that damage our manufacturing, distribution, or infrastructure of those facilities, or the suppliers and service providers for those facilities;
our ability to manufacture and ship our products efficiently or in sufficient quantities to meet sales demands;
changes in the cost or decreases in the supply of raw materials and services, including sterilization, energy, steel and honey;
the timing of our research and development expenditures;
reimbursement for our products by third-party payors such as Medicare, Medicaid, private and public health insurers and foreign governmental health systems;
the ability to maintain existing distribution rights to and from certain third parties;
the ability to maintain business if or when we opt to convert such business from distributors to a direct sales model;
the ability of our commercial sales representatives to obtain sales targets in a reasonable time frame;
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the impact of changes to our sales organization, continued channel expansion, including increased specialization;
peer-reviewed publications discussing the clinical effectiveness of the products we sell;
inspections of our manufacturing facilities for compliance with Quality System Regulations (Good Manufacturing Practices), which could result in Form 483 observations, warning letters, injunctions or other adverse findings from the FDA or from equivalent regulatory bodies, and corrective actions, procedural changes and other actions that we determine are necessary or appropriate to address the results of those inspections, any of which may affect production and our ability to supply our customers with our products;
changes in regulations or guidelines that impact the sales and marketing practices for products that we sell;
the increased regulatory scrutiny of certain of our products, including products which we manufacture for others, could result in removal from the market or involve field corrective actions that could affect the marketability of our products;
enforcement or defense of intellectual property rights;
changes in tax laws, or their interpretations; and
the impact of goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges if future operating results of the acquired businesses are significantly less than the results anticipated at the time of the acquisitions.
The industry and market segments in which we operate are highly competitive, and we may be unable to compete effectively with other companies.
There is intense competition among medical device companies. We compete with established medical technology companies in many of our product areas. Competition also comes from early-stage companies, universities, research institutions and other non-profit entities. In certain cases, our products compete primarily against medical practices that treat a condition without using a device or any particular product, such as the medical practices that use autograft tissue instead of our dermal regeneration products, duraplasty products and nerve repair products, or that use other technologies that cost less than our products. Many of our competitors have access to greater financial, technical, research and development, marketing, manufacturing, sales, distribution, administrative, consulting and other resources than we do. Our competitors may be more effective at developing commercial products or navigating the regulatory approval process in the markets in which we operate. They may be able to gain market share by offering lower-cost products or products that enjoy better reimbursement from third-party payors and foreign governmental health systems.
Our competitive position depends on our ability to achieve market acceptance for our products, develop new products, implement marketing plans, secure regulatory approval for products under development, demonstrate clinical and economic effectiveness, obtain and maintain reimbursement coverage and funding under third-party payors and foreign governmental health systems, obtain patent protection and produce products consistently in sufficient quantities to meet demand. We may need to develop new applications for our products to remain competitive. Technological advances by one or more of our current or future competitors or their achievement of superior reimbursement from third-party payors and foreign governmental health systems could render our present or future products obsolete or uneconomical. Our future success will depend upon our ability to compete effectively against current technology as well as to respond effectively to technological advances, changes in customers' requirements or in payor or regulatory evidence requirements. Additionally, purchasing decisions of our customers may be based on clinical evidence or comparative effectiveness studies and, because of our vast array of products, we might not be able to fund the studies necessary to gain entry or maintain our position or provide the required information to compete effectively. Other companies may have more resources available to fund such studies. For example, competitors have launched and are developing products to compete with our dural repair products, regenerative skin, neuro critical care monitors and ultrasonic tissue ablation devices, among others. In the current environment of managed care, consolidation among health care providers, increased competition, and declining reimbursement rates, we have been increasingly required to compete on the basis of price. Competitive pressures could adversely affect our profitability. Given these factors, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to compete effectively or continue our level of success in the areas in which we compete.
Changes in the healthcare industry may require us to decrease the selling price for our products, may reduce the size of the market for our products, or may eliminate a market, any of which could have a negative impact on our financial performance.
Trends toward managed care, healthcare cost containment and other changes in government and private sector initiatives in the U.S. and other countries in which we do business are placing increased emphasis on the delivery of more cost-effective medical therapies that could adversely affect the sale and/or the prices of our products. For example:
third-party payors of hospital services and hospital outpatient services, including Medicare, Medicaid, private and public health insurers and foreign governmental health systems, annually revise their payment methodologies, which can result in stricter standards for reimbursement of hospital charges for certain medical procedures or the elimination of reimbursement;
several foreign countries have implemented reforms of their respective healthcare sectors in an effort to reduce healthcare spending, including restricting funding to only those medical technologies and procedures with proven effectiveness, increasing patient co-payments and providing for payback measures. Governmental health systems have revised and continue to consider revisions of healthcare budgets, which could result in stricter standards for implementing certain medical procedures, increased scrutiny of medical devices, and downward pricing pressure;
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Medicare, Medicaid, private and public health insurer and foreign governmental cutbacks could create downward pricing pressure on our products;
in the U.S., Medicare and Medicaid coverage as well as commercial payor coverage determinations could reduce or eliminate reimbursement or coverage for certain of our wound matrix, amniotic, surgical reconstruction and advanced wound dressing products as well as other products in most regions, negatively affecting our market for these products, and future determinations could reduce or eliminate reimbursement or coverage for these products in other regions and could reduce or eliminate reimbursement or coverage for other products;
there has been a consolidation among healthcare facilities and purchasers of medical devices in the U.S., some of whom prefer to limit the number of suppliers from whom they purchase medical products, and these entities may decide to stop purchasing our products or demand discounts on our prices;
in the U.S., we are party to contracts with group purchasing organizations, which negotiate pricing for many member hospitals, require us to discount our prices for certain of our products and limit our ability to raise prices for certain of our products, particularly surgical instruments;
there is economic pressure to contain healthcare costs in domestic and international markets, and, regardless of the consolidation discussed above, providers generally are exploring ways to cut costs by eliminating purchases or driving reductions in the prices that they pay for medical devices, or increasing clinical or economic evidence thresholds for product formularies;
there are proposed and existing laws, regulations and industry policies in domestic and international markets regulating the sales and marketing practices and the pricing and profitability of companies in the healthcare industry;
proposed laws or regulations may permit hospitals to provide financial incentives to doctors for reducing hospital costs, will award physician efficiency, and will encourage partnerships with healthcare service and goods providers to reduce prices; and
there have been initiatives by third-party payors and foreign governmental health systems to challenge the prices charged for medical products that could affect our ability to sell products on a competitive basis.
Any and all of the above factors could materially and adversely affect our levels of revenue and our profitability.
Our current strategy involves growth through acquisitions, which requires us to incur substantial costs and potential liabilities for which we may never realize the anticipated benefits, and also requires us to successfully integrate acquired businesses into our business operations in order to avoid our business being materially and adversely affected.
In addition to internally generated growth, our current strategy involves growth through acquisitions. Between January 1, 2020 and December 31, 2022, we have acquired two businesses at a total cost of approximately $358.4 million which amount includes our acquisition of ACell, Inc. in January 2021 for $306.9 million and our acquisition of Surgical Innovation Associates, Inc. for $51.5 million in December 2022. Both of these acquisitions added products to our complex wound management and plastic and reconstructive surgery product portfolios, respectively, and provides additional growth opportunities for our TT segment.
We may be unable to continue to implement our growth strategy and it may ultimately be unsuccessful. A significant portion of our growth in revenues has resulted from, and is expected to continue to result from, the acquisition of businesses or products complementary to our own. We engage in evaluations of potential acquisitions and are in various stages of discussion regarding possible acquisitions, certain of which, if consummated, could be significant to us. Any new acquisition could result in material transaction expenses, increased operating, amortization and interest expenses, and possible in-process research and development charges for acquisitions that do not meet the definition of a “business,” any of which could have a material, adverse effect on our operating results. Certain businesses that we acquire may not have adequate financial, disclosure, regulatory, quality or other compliance controls at the time we acquire them and could require significant expenditures to address those controls or subject us to increased risk. As we grow by acquisition, we must manage and integrate the new businesses to bring them into our systems for financial, disclosure, compliance, regulatory and quality control, realize economies of scale, and control costs. Failure to integrate acquired businesses and operations (including acquired employees and systems), retain key customers and suppliers of any acquired business or manage the cost of providing our products or price our products appropriately could preclude realization of the full benefits that we expect from there transactions. Our failure to meet the challenges involved in integrating the business in order to realize the anticipated benefits of the acquisitions could cause an interruption of, or loss of momentum in, our activities and could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, acquisitions involve other risks, including diversion of management resources otherwise available for the running of our business and the development of our business as well as risks associated with entering markets in which our marketing teams and sales force has limited experience or where experienced distribution alliances are not available. Some acquisitions may include the need for ongoing product development to occur consistent with time sensitive milestones in order for the Company to achieve its commercial projections for the acquisition. Our future profitability will depend in part upon our ability to develop our resources to adapt to these new products or business areas and to identify and enter into or maintain satisfactory distribution networks. As a result of our acquisitions of other healthcare businesses, we may be subject to the risk of unanticipated business uncertainties, regulatory and other compliance matters or legal liabilities relating to those acquired businesses for which the sellers of the acquired businesses may not indemnify us, for which we may not be able to obtain insurance (or adequate insurance), or for which the indemnification may not be sufficient to cover the ultimate liabilities. We
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may not be able to identify suitable acquisition candidates in the future, obtain acceptable financing or consummate any future acquisitions. Certain potential acquisitions are subject to antitrust and competition laws, which laws could impact our ability to pursue strategic acquisitions and could result in mandated divestitures. If we are unsuccessful in our acquisition strategy, we may be unable to meet our financial targets and our financial performance could be materially and adversely affected.
These risks may be heightened in cases where the majority of the former businesses’ operations, employees and customers are located outside the U.S. Any one or all of these factors could increase operating costs or lower anticipated financial performance. Many of these factors are also outside of our control. In addition, dispositions of certain key products, technologies and other rights, including pursuant to conditions imposed on us to obtain regulatory approvals, may affect our business operations.
Even if the operations of the businesses are integrated successfully, we may not realize the full benefits of the acquisition, including the synergies, cost savings or sales or growth opportunities that we expect. These benefits may not be achieved within the anticipated time frame, or at all. Additional unanticipated costs could be incurred in the integration of the businesses. All of these factors could cause a reduction to our earnings per share, decrease or delay the expected accretive effect of the transaction, and negatively impact the price of our common stock.
Our future financial results could be adversely affected by impairments or other charges.
We are required to test both goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment on an annual basis based upon a fair value approach, rather than amortizing them over time. We are also required to test goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment between annual tests if an event occurs such as a significant decline in revenues or cash flows for certain products, or the discount rates used in the calculations of discounted cash flows change significantly, or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce our enterprise fair value below its book value. If such a decline, rate change or circumstance were to materialize, we may record an impairment of these intangible assets that could be material to the financial statements. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Critical Accounting Estimates” of this report.
The guidance on long-lived assets requires that we assess the impairment of our long-lived assets, including finite-lived intangible assets, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable as measured by the sum of the expected future undiscounted cash flows.
Also, Company decisions and other economic factors relating to our trade names may occur over time. For instance, we may discontinue certain products in the future as we continue to assess the profitability of our product lines. As a result, we may need to record impairment charges or accelerate amortization on certain trade names or technology-related intangible assets in the future.
The value of a medical device business is often volatile, and the assumptions underlying our estimates made in connection with our assessments under the guidance may change as a result of that volatility or other factors outside our control and may result in impairment charges. The amount of any such impairment charges could be significant and have a material, adverse effect on our reported financial results for the period in which the charge is taken and could have an adverse effect on the market price of our securities, including the notes and the common stock into which they may be converted.
Lack of market acceptance for our products or market preference for technologies that compete with our products could reduce our revenues and profitability.
Market acceptance of our products depends on many factors, including our ability to convince prospective customers that our technology is an attractive alternative to other technologies, to manufacture products in sufficient quantities and at acceptable costs, and to supply and service sufficient quantities of our products directly or through our distribution alliances. For example, the use of autograft tissue is a well-established means for repairing the dermis, and it competes for acceptance in the market with our collagen-based wound care products. In addition, unfavorable payment amounts or adverse coverage determinations of third-party payors, including Medicare, Medicaid, private and public health insurers, and foreign governmental health systems, regarding our products or third-party determinations that favor a competitor’s product over ours, could harm acceptance or continued use of our products. For example, greater market acceptance of our wound graft products may ultimately depend on our ability to demonstrate that coverage and reimbursement are available and favorable, or because they are an attractive, cost-effective alternative to other treatment options.
If there are negative events in the healthcare industry, whether real or perceived, there could be a negative impact on the industry as a whole. The industry is subject to rapid and continuous change arising from, among other things, consolidation, technological improvements, the pressure on governments, third-party payors and providers to reduce healthcare costs, and healthcare reform legislation and initiatives domestically and internationally. In addition, our future success depends, in part, on our ability to license and develop additional products. Even if we determine that a product candidate has medical benefits, the cost of commercializing, either through internal development or payments associated with licensing arrangements, could be too high to justify development and we could ultimately face competitors with more effective products and better reimbursement status that cost less and are ready for commercial introduction before our products. If we are unable to develop additional commercially viable products, our future prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
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One or more of these factors could vary unpredictably, and such variations could have a material, adverse effect on our competitive position. We may not be able to adjust our contemplated plan of development to meet changing market demands.
It could be difficult to replace some of our suppliers.
Outside vendors, some of whom are sole-source suppliers, provide key components and raw materials used in the manufacture of our products. Although we believe that alternative sources for many of these components and raw materials are available, any interruption in supply of a limited or sole-source component or raw material could harm our ability to manufacture our products until a new or alternative source of supply is identified and qualified. In addition, an uncorrected defect or supplier’s variation in a component or raw material, either unknown to us or incompatible with our manufacturing process, could harm our ability to manufacture products. We may not be able to find a sufficient alternative supplier in a reasonable time period, or on commercially reasonable terms, if at all, and our ability to produce and supply our products could be impaired. We believe that these factors are most likely to affect the following products that we sell:
our collagen-based products and bovine-based products, such as the Integra Dermal Regeneration Template and wound matrix products, the DuraGen® family of products, our Absorbable Collagen Sponges, PriMatrix® and SurgiMend products;
our products made from silicone, such as our neurosurgical shunts and drainage systems and hemodynamic shunts;
products which use many different specialty parts, electrical components, or chemicals from numerous suppliers, such as our intracranial monitors, shunts, catheters, tissue ablation, and headlights;
our biosynthetic products, including the DuraSeal sealant system and DuraSorb biosynthetic mesh scaffold;
products which are amniotic tissue-based
products which are porcine tissue-based;
products that use medical grade leptospermum honey, such as our Medihoney products; and
our TCC-EZ® total contact cast system products.
The availability of amniotic tissue-based products depends upon, among other factors, the availability of tissue from human donors. Access to donated amniotic tissue could also be adversely impacted by regulatory changes or evolving public perceptions of the donor process.
Additionally, many of our products require sterilization by third-party suppliers. To the extent these suppliers are unable to provide sterilization services, whether due to lack of capacity, regulatory requirements, environmental concerns such as those relating to ethylene oxide or otherwise, we may be unable to transition sterilization to other suppliers in a timely or cost effective manner, or at all, which could have an adverse impact on our operating results.
Our supply chain and our cost of goods also may be negatively impacted by unanticipated price increases due to factors such as global economic disruptions, electronic component shortages, fear of future or ongoing pandemics, inflation, including wage inflation, recessionary conditions and geopolitical events, including the war in Ukraine, all of which are beyond our control or the control of our suppliers.
While it is our policy to maintain sufficient inventory of components so that our production will not be significantly disrupted even if a particular component or material is not available for a period of time, we remain at risk that we will not be able to qualify new components or materials quickly enough to prevent a disruption if one or more of our suppliers ceases production of important components or materials.
We may experience difficulties, delays, performance impact or unexpected costs from consolidation of facilities and transfer of manufacturing facilities.
In recent years, we consolidated several facilities or transferred manufacturing operations from third parties to our existing internal manufacturing facilities and may further undertake similar consolidations or transfers in the future in order to improve our cost structure, achieve increased operating efficiencies, and improve our competitive standing or results of operations and/or to address unfavorable economic conditions. As part of these initiatives, we may also lose favorable tax incentives or not be able to renew leases on acceptable terms. We may further reduce staff, make changes to certain capital projects, close certain production operations and abandon leases for certain facilities that will not be used in our operations. In conjunction with any actions, we will continue to make significant investments and build the framework for our future growth. We may not realize, in full or in part, the anticipated benefits and savings from these efforts because of unforeseen difficulties, delays, implementation issues or unexpected costs. If we are unable to achieve or maintain all of the resulting savings or benefits to our business or other unforeseen events occur, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.

We may have significant product liability exposure and our insurance may not cover all potential claims.
We are exposed to product liability and other claims if our technologies or products are alleged to have caused harm. We may not be able to obtain insurance for the potential liability on acceptable terms with adequate coverage or at reasonable costs. Any potential product liability claims could exceed the amount of our insurance coverage or may be excluded from coverage under the terms of the policy. Our insurance may not be renewed at a cost and level of coverage comparable to that then in effect.
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Economic and political instability around the world could adversely affect the ability of hospitals, other customers, suppliers and distributors to access funds or otherwise have available liquidity, which could reduce orders for our products or interrupt our production or distribution or result in a reduction in elective and non-reimbursed operative procedures.
Economic and political instability around the world could adversely affect the ability of hospitals and other customers to access funds to enable them to fund their operating and capital budgets. As a result, hospitals and other customers could reduce budgets or put all or part of their budgets on hold or close their operations, which could have a negative effect on our sales, particularly the sales of capital equipment such as our ultrasonic surgical aspirators, neuromonitors and cranial stabilization products, or result in a reduction in elective and non-reimbursed procedures. The occurrence of those economic conditions could make it more difficult for us to accurately forecast and plan our future business activities and depending on their severity, could have a material, adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our private-label product lines depend significantly on key relationships with third parties, which we could be unable to establish and maintain.
Our private-label business depends in part on entering into and maintaining long-term supply agreements with third parties. The third parties with whom we have entered into agreements might terminate these agreements for a variety of reasons, including developing other sources for the products that we supply. Termination of our most important relationships could adversely affect our expectations for the growth of private-label products.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
The adoption of healthcare reform in the U.S. and initiatives sponsored by other governments may adversely affect our business, results of operations and/or financial condition.
Our operations may be substantially affected by potential fundamental changes in the global political, economic and regulatory landscape of the healthcare industry. Government and private sector initiatives to limit the growth of healthcare costs are continuing in the U.S., and in many other countries in which we do business, causing the marketplace to put increased emphasis on the delivery of more cost-effective treatments. These initiatives include price regulation, competitive pricing, coverage and payment policies, comparative effectiveness of therapies, technology assessments and managed-care arrangements. The adoption of some or all of these initiatives could have a material, adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
In the United States, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the “ACA”), signed into law in March 2010, includes several provisions that impact our businesses in the U.S. The ACA includes provisions that, among other things, reduce and/or limit Medicare reimbursement, require all individuals to have health insurance (with limited exceptions), and require detailed disclosure of transfers of value made to healthcare professionals. Other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the Affordable Care Act was enacted, including The Budget Control Act of 2011, The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 and Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, which, among other things, have reduced payments under Medicare and Medicaid to certain healthcare providers or altered the formula by which Medicare makes annual payment adjustments. Congress also drafts and introduces, from time to time, legislation that could significantly change the statutory provisions governing the regulation of medical devices. In addition, the FDA may change its clearance and approval policies, adopt additional regulations or revise existing regulations, or take other actions, which may prevent or delay approval or clearance of our future products under development or impact our ability to modify our currently cleared products on a timely basis. For example, over the last several years, the FDA has proposed reforms to its 510(k) clearance process, and such proposals could include increased requirements for clinical data and a longer review period, or could make it more difficult for manufacturers to utilize the 510(k) clearance process for their products.
We cannot predict what impact ongoing uncertainty regarding federal and state health reform proposals, including the implementation or repeal of the ACA, judicial review and interpretation of the ACA and other healthcare laws, instability of the insurance markets, changes in the U.S. administration and policy, an expansion in government’s role in and/or additional proposals and/or changes to the U.S. health care system or its legislation will have on our customer’s purchasing decisions and/or reimbursement which could have a material adverse effect on our business. We expect that additional state and federal health care reform measures will be adopted in the future, including those initiatives affecting coverage and reimbursement for our products, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for health care products and services, which could adversely affect the growth of the market for our products or demand for our products, or result in additional pricing pressures. We cannot predict the ultimate content, timing or effect of any healthcare reform legislation or the impact of potential legislation on us. We continue to monitor the implementation of such legislation and, to the extent new market or industry trends or new governmental programs evolve, we will consider implementing or implement programs in response.

We are subject to stringent domestic and foreign medical device regulations and oversight and any adverse action may adversely affect our ability to compete in the marketplace and our financial condition and business operations.
Our products, development activities and manufacturing processes are subject to extensive and rigorous regulation by numerous government agencies, including the FDA and comparable foreign agencies, as discussed in “Part 1, Item 1. Business –
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Government Regulation.” To varying degrees, each of these agencies monitors and enforces our compliance with laws and regulations governing the development, testing, manufacturing, labeling, marketing and distribution of our medical devices. We are also subject to regulations that may apply to certain of our products that are Drug/Device Combination products or are considered to be subject to pharmaceutical regulations outside the U.S. The process of obtaining marketing approval or clearance from the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory agencies for new products, or for enhancements or modifications to existing products could be costly, time consuming and burdensome, lead to failed clinical trials or weakened clinical evidence, involve modifications, repairs or replacements of our products and result in limitations on the indicated use of our products, which may negatively impact our ability to market our products and services, result in delays or prevent full commercial realization of future products or service. Furthermore, failure to obtain timely approvals or renewals may result in significant penalties and fines. Additional regulations govern the approval, initiation, conduct, monitoring, documentation and reporting of clinical studies to regulatory agencies in the countries or regions in which they are conducted. Failure to comply, could subject us to significant enforcement actions and sanctions, including halting the study, rejection of data generated in the study, seizure of investigational devices or data, sanctions against investigators, civil or criminal penalties, and other actions. In addition, without the data from one or more clinical studies, it may not be possible for us to secure the data necessary to support certain regulatory submissions, to secure reimbursement or demonstrate other requirements. We cannot assure that access to clinical investigators, sites and subjects, documentation and data will be available on the terms and timeframes necessary.
We are subject to extensive complex regulatory requirements by domestic and foreign government agencies and any failure to comply with our ongoing responsibilities under their applicable laws and regulations could result in a material adverse impact on our business. Failure to comply with applicable regulations could result in future product recalls, injunctions preventing the shipment of products or other enforcement actions that could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We also are subject to the European Medical Device Regulation, which was adopted by the European Union (“EU”) as a common legal framework for all EU member states. The implementation for Class I products occurred on May 26, 2021 and the EUDAMED Database was implemented on May 26, 2022. Under this regulation, companies that wish to manufacture and distribute medical devices in EU member states must meet certain quality system, and safety requirements as well as ongoing product monitoring responsibilities. Companies must also obtain a “CE” marking (i.e., a mandatory conformity marking for certain products sold within the European Economic Area) for their products. Complying with the requirements of these regulations may require us to incur significant expenditures. Expenditures for European Union Medical Device Regulation compliance activities amounted to $45.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 and we anticipate incurring additional expenditures in connection with our on-going efforts to obtain certification for our products under the European Medical Device Regulation. Various penalties exist for non-compliance with the laws implementing the European Medical Device Regulations which if incurred, could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and cash flows.
Further, the regulatory environment in China continues to evolve, and officials in the Chinese government exercise broad discretion in deciding how to interpret and apply regulations. It is possible that the Chinese government's current or future interpretation and application of existing or new regulations will negatively impact our China operations, result in regulatory investigations or lead to fines or penalties.
In addition, we are subject to laws and regulations that govern the means by which companies in the healthcare industry may market their products to healthcare professionals and may compete by discounting the prices of their products, including for example, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the federal False Claims Act, the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, state law equivalents to these federal laws that are meant to protect against fraud and abuse and analogous laws in foreign countries. Violations of these laws are punishable by criminal and civil sanctions, including, but not limited to, in some instances civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, and exclusion from participation in federal and state healthcare programs, including Medicare and Medicaid. Although we exercise care in structuring our sales and marketing practices and customer discount arrangements to comply with those laws and regulations, we cannot assure that:
government officials charged with responsibility for enforcing those laws will not assert that our sales and marketing practices or customer discount arrangements are in violation of those laws or regulations; or
government regulators or courts will interpret those laws or regulations in a manner consistent with our interpretation.
We have in place policies and procedures for compliance that we believe are at least as stringent as those set forth in the AdvaMed Code of Ethics which was developed by AdvaMed, a trade association that represents the medical device industry, and which is intended to represent best practices with respect to medical device companies' interactions with healthcare providers. We regularly train our sales and marketing personnel on our policies regarding sales and marketing practices. Pursuant to the AdvaMed Code, we have certified our adoption of the AdvaMed Code. The sales and marketing practices of our industry have been the subject of increased scrutiny from federal and state government agencies, and we believe that this trend will continue. Various hospital organizations, medical societies and trade associations are establishing their own practices that may require detailed disclosures of relationships between healthcare professionals and medical device companies or ban or restrict certain marketing and sales practices such as gifts and business meals. Since these laws, regulations and ultimate enforcement continue to evolve, we cannot predict with certainty, what, if any, impact, changes to them may have on our business or our customers.
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Outside of the U.S. we are subject to privacy and data security regulations at the international, national and regional level, as well as on an industry specific basis. For example, in Europe, we are subject to the EU General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") which is related to the collection, processing, storage, transfer and use of personal data. In the U.S., we are subject to the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (“CCPA”) and other similar laws in the United States, at both the federal and state level. Noncompliance with GDPR could trigger fines of up to 4% of global annual revenues. In addition, we are subject to the new China Personal Information Protection Law that went into effect November 1, 2021 which focuses on protecting personal information and cross border transfers of the information. Compliance with these requirements, either individually or in the aggregate, may require changes in business practices added complexity and additional management oversight. They also may complicate our clinical research activities, as well as product offerings that involve transmission or use of clinical data. Non-compliance may result in proceedings against us by governmental or other entities and/or significant fines which could negatively impact our reputation and adversely affect our business.
Should we delay or fail to comply with one or more of the regulatory requirements we could have reduced sales, increased costs, delays to new product introductions, enhancements or our strategic plans, or harm to our reputation or competitiveness, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.
Our medical device products are subject to reporting requirements and recalls, even after receiving regulatory clearance, approval or certification, which could harm our reputation, business and financial results.
After a device is placed on the market, numerous regulatory requirements apply, which require manufacturers to follow, among other things, design, testing, production, control, documentation and other quality assurance procedures during the manufacturing process; labeling regulations, which prohibit the promotion of products for unapproved or “off-label” uses and impose other restrictions on labeling; and medical device reporting regulations that require us to report to FDA or similar governmental bodies in other countries if our products may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or malfunction in a way that would be reasonably likely to contribute to death or serious injury if the malfunction were to recur. The FDA and similar governmental bodies in other countries have the authority to require the recall of our products in the event of material deficiencies or defects in design or manufacture or in the event that a product poses an unacceptable risk to health. We may, under own initiative, recall a product if a reasonable possibility of serious injury or any material deficiency in a device is found, or withdraw a product to improve device performance or for other reasons.
Recalls of any of our products may divert managerial and financial resources and have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. A recall could harm our reputation with customers and consumers which could reduce the sales of our products. In addition, the FDA or other foreign governmental agencies may implement enforcement actions in connection with a recall which could impair our product offerings and be harmful to our business and financial results.
Certain of our products contain materials derived from animal sources and may become subject to additional regulation.
Certain of our products are derived from bovine or porcine tissue sources. As a result, we may experience difficulties in processing and producing our bovine and porcine tissue products at scale, including problems related to yields, quality control and assurance, tissue availability, adequacy of control policies and procedures and availability of skilled personnel.
With respect to bovine, among other products, our dermal regeneration products, duraplasty products, wound care products, bone void fillers, nerve and tendon repair products and certain other products, contain material derived from bovine tissue. In 2022, 43.3% of our revenues derived from products containing material derived from bovine tissue. Products that contain materials derived from animal sources, including food, pharmaceuticals and medical devices, are subject to scrutiny in the media and by regulatory authorities. Regulatory authorities are concerned about the potential for the transmission of disease from animals to humans via those materials. This public scrutiny has been particularly acute in Japan and Western Europe with respect to products derived from animal sources, because of concern that materials infected with the agent that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy, otherwise known as BSE or mad cow disease, may, if ingested or implanted, cause a variant of the human Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, an ultimately fatal disease with no known cure. The World Organization for Animal Health recognizes the U.S. as having a negligible risk for BSE, which is the highest status available.
We take care to provide that our products are safe and free of agents that can cause disease. In particular, we qualified a source of collagen from a country outside the U.S. that is considered BSE/TSE-free. The World Health Organization classifies different types of bovine tissue for relative risk of BSE transmission. Deep flexor tendon and bovine fetal skin, which are used in our products, are in the lowest-risk categories for BSE transmission and are therefore considered to have a negligible risk of containing the agent that causes BSE (an improperly folded protein known as a prion). Nevertheless, products that contain materials derived from animals, including our products, could become subject to additional regulation, or even be banned in certain countries, because of concern over the potential for the transmission of prions. Significant new regulations, or a ban of our products, could have a material, adverse effect on our current business or our ability to expand our business.

Certain countries, such as Japan, China, Taiwan and Argentina, have issued regulations that require our collagen products be sourced from countries where no cases of BSE have occurred, and the EU has requested that our dural replacement products and other products that are used in neurological tissue be sourced from a country where no cases of BSE have occurred. Currently, we source bovine fetal hides from the U.S. and purchase tendon from the U.S. and New Zealand. New Zealand has
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never had a case of BSE. We received approval in the U.S., the EU, Japan, Taiwan, China, Argentina as well as other countries for the use of New Zealand-sourced tendon in the manufacturing of our products. If we cannot continue to use or qualify a source of tendon from New Zealand or another country that has never had a case of BSE, we could be prohibited from selling our collagen products in certain countries.
We are subject to current and potential future requirements relating to protection of the environment, such as hazardous materials regulations, which may impose significant compliance or other costs on us.
Certain of our processes in manufacturing and research and development involve the controlled use of certain hazardous materials. In addition, we own and/or lease a number of facilities at which hazardous materials have been used in the past. Finally, we have acquired various companies that historically have used certain hazardous materials and that have owned and/or leased facilities at which hazardous materials have been used. For all of these reasons, we are subject to federal, state, foreign, and local laws and regulations governing the use, manufacture, storage, transportation, handling, treatment, remediation, and disposal of hazardous materials and certain waste products (“Environmental, Health, Safety and Transportation Laws”). Although we believe that our procedures for handling, transporting, and disposing of hazardous materials comply with the Environmental, Health, Safety and Transportation Laws, such laws may be amended in ways that increase our cost of compliance, perhaps materially.
Furthermore, the potential risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials cannot be eliminated, and there is also a risk that such contamination previously has occurred in connection with one of our facilities or in connection with one of the companies we have purchased. In the event of such an accident or contamination, we could be held liable for any damages that result and any related liability could exceed the limits or fall outside the coverage of our insurance and could exceed our resources. We may not be able to maintain insurance on acceptable terms or at all.
Our business and operations are subject to risks related to climate change.
The long-term effects of global climate change present both physical risks (from the increased frequency of extreme weather conditions or natural disasters) and transition risks (from regulatory requirements or technology changes). Such extreme weather conditions could pose physical risks to our facilities and disrupt operation of our supply chain and may impact operational costs. Concern over global climate change could result in new legal or regulatory requirements designed to mitigate the effects of climate change on the environment. If such laws or regulations are more stringent than current legal or regulatory requirements, we may experience increased compliance burdens and costs to meet the regulatory obligations and such measures may interrupt our operations or the operations of our suppliers, potentially leading to higher costs, and therefore negatively impact our results of operations.
We are subject to requirements relating to information technology which could adversely affect our business.
If we are unable to maintain reliable information technology systems and prevent disruptions, outages, or data breaches, we may suffer regulatory consequences in addition to business consequences. Our worldwide operations means that we are subject to laws and regulations, including data protection and cyber security laws and regulations, in many jurisdictions. The variety of U.S. and international privacy and cybersecurity laws and regulations impacting our operations are described in “Item 1. Business - Government Regulation - Other Factors - Data Privacy and Cybersecurity Laws and Regulations." We have programs to ensure compliance with such laws and regulations. However, there is no guarantee that we will avoid enforcement actions by governmental bodies. Enforcement actions may be costly and interrupt regular operations of our business. In addition, there has been a developing trend of civil lawsuits and class actions relating to breaches of consumer data held by large companies or incidents arising from other cyber-attacks. While Integra has not been named in any such suits, if a substantial breach or loss of data were to occur, we could become a target of such litigation.
If we do not retain our key personnel and attract and retain other highly skilled employees, our business could suffer.
If we fail to recruit, develop and retain the necessary personnel, our business and our ability to obtain new customers, develop new products and provide acceptable levels of customer service could suffer. The success of our business is heavily dependent on the leadership of our key management personnel. Our success also depends on our ability to recruit, develop and retain and motivate highly skilled sales, marketing, manufacturing and scientific personnel. Competition for these persons in our industry is intense, and we may not be able to successfully recruit, train or retain qualified personnel. We are experiencing increasing challenges in building and retaining our workforce in certain markets, where pressure from inflation and competition have exacerbated turnover and retention trends continuing from the COVID-19 pandemic. Labor shortages and competition for qualified personnel could cause disruptions in our business operations.

RISKS RELATED TO TAX AND DEBT
We may have additional tax liabilities.
We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and many foreign jurisdictions and are commonly audited by various tax authorities. In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. Although we believe that our tax estimates are reasonable, the final determination of tax audits and any related litigation could be materially different
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from our historical income tax provisions and accruals. The results of an audit or litigation could have a material, adverse effect on our financial statements in the period or periods for which that determination is made.
Changes in tax laws or exposures to additional tax liabilities could negatively impact the Company's operating results.
We are subject to income taxes, as well as taxes that are not income-based, in both the U.S. and many foreign jurisdictions. Taxes could significantly increase due to changes in tax laws or changes in our interpretation of those laws. For example, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, a global policy forum, is developing a global tax framework that, if implemented, includes a global minimum tax rate of 15%. Taxes could also significantly increase due to changes in accounting guidance. Our future effective tax rate could be unfavorably affected by numerous factors including a change in, or the interpretation of, tax rules and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we operate (including changes in legislation currently being considered), a change in our geographic earnings mix, and/or to the jurisdictions in which we operate, or a change in the measurement of our deferred taxes.
Our leverage and debt service obligations could adversely affect our business.
Our leverage and debt service obligations could adversely affect our business. As of December 31, 2022, our total consolidated external debt was approximately $1.5 billion (See Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Note 5, Debt, to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for a discussion of our consolidated external debt). We may also incur additional indebtedness in the future. Our substantial indebtedness could have material, adverse consequences, including:
making it more difficult for us to satisfy our financial obligations;
increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic, regulatory and industry conditions, and placing us at a disadvantage compared to our competitors that are less leveraged;
limiting our ability to compete and our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate; and
limiting our ability to borrow additional funds for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and general corporate or other purposes.
Our debt service obligations will require us to use a portion of our operating cash flow to pay interest and principal on indebtedness instead of for other corporate purposes, including funding future expansion of our business, acquisitions, and ongoing capital expenditures, which could impede our growth. In addition, our ability to comply with, renegotiate or extend the Company’s debt obligations will depend on our operating and financial performance, which in turn is subject to prevailing economic conditions and financial, business and other factors beyond our control. Any disruptions in our operations, the financial markets, or the overall economy, including as a result of COVID-19, may adversely affect the availability and cost of credit to us and/or our ability to comply with our existing obligations.
Changes in the calculation and or complete replacement of LIBOR could have an impact on our business.
The United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”), which regulates LIBOR, announced in July 2017 that it will no longer persuade or require banks to submit rates for LIBOR. On March 5, 2021, the ICE Benchmark Administration, which administers LIBOR, and the FCA announced that all LIBOR settings will either cease to be provided by any administrator, or no longer be representative immediately after December 31, 2021, for all non-U.S. dollar LIBOR settings and one-week and two-month U.S. dollar LIBOR settings, and immediately after June 30, 2023 for the remaining U.S. dollar LIBOR settings. We have multiple debt facilities which utilizes a variable rate equal to Eurodollar LIBOR rate as a component of our interest rate.
Management expects all LIBOR-based contracts to be replaced by the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), which is calculated based on overnight transactions under repurchase agreements backed by Treasury securities. The Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a group of private-market participants convened by the U.S. Federal Reserve Board and the New York Federal Reserve, has recommended the use of SOFR as a more robust reference rate alternative to LIBOR. The use of SOFR as a substitute for LIBOR is, however, voluntary and may not be suitable for all market participants. There can be no assurance that the replacement rate will be economically equivalent to LIBOR, which could result in higher interest rates for us under our debt facilities. There is no guarantee that a transition from LIBOR to SOFR will not result in financial market disruptions, significant increases in benchmark rates, or our borrowing costs, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
Our intellectual property rights may not provide meaningful commercial protection for our products, potentially enabling third parties to use our technology or very similar technology and could reduce our ability to compete in the market.
To compete effectively, we depend, in part, on our ability to maintain the proprietary nature of our technologies and manufacturing processes, which includes the ability to obtain, protect and enforce patents on our technology and to protect our
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trade secrets. We own or have licensed patents that cover aspects of some of our product lines. Our patents, however, may not provide us with any significant competitive advantage. Others may challenge our patents and, as a result, our patents could be narrowed, invalidated or rendered unenforceable. Competitors may develop products similar to ours that our patents do not cover. In addition, the approval or rejection of patent applications may take several years and our current and future patent applications may not result in the issuance of patents in the U.S. or foreign countries.
Our competitive position depends, in part, upon unpatented trade secrets, which we may be unable to protect.
Our competitive position also depends upon unpatented trade secrets, which are difficult to protect. We cannot assure that others will not independently develop substantially equivalent proprietary information and techniques or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets, that our trade secrets will not be disclosed or that we can effectively protect our rights to unpatented trade secrets.
In an effort to protect our trade secrets, we require our employees, consultants and advisors to execute confidentiality and invention assignment agreements upon commencement of employment or consulting relationships with us. These agreements provide that, except in specified circumstances, all confidential information developed or made known to the individual during the course of their relationships with us must be kept confidential. We cannot assure, however, that these agreements will provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets or other proprietary information in the event of the unauthorized use or disclosure of confidential information.
Our success will depend partly on our ability to operate without infringing or misappropriating the proprietary rights of others.
We may be sued for infringing the intellectual property rights of others. In addition, we may find it necessary, if threatened, to initiate a lawsuit seeking a declaration from a court that we do not infringe the proprietary rights of others or that their rights are invalid or unenforceable. If we do not prevail in any litigation, in addition to any damages we might have to pay, we would be required to stop the infringing activity (which could include a cessation of selling the products in question) or obtain a license for the proprietary rights involved. Any required license may be unavailable to us on acceptable terms, if at all. In addition, some licenses may be nonexclusive and allow our competitors to access the same technology we license.
If we fail to obtain a required license or are unable to design our products so as not to infringe on the proprietary rights of others, we may be unable to sell some of our products, and this potential inability could have a material, adverse effect on our revenues and profitability.
We may be involved in lawsuits relating to our intellectual property rights and promotional practices, which may be expensive.
To protect or enforce our intellectual property rights, we may have to initiate or defend legal proceedings, such as infringement suits or opposition proceedings, against or by third parties. In addition, we may have to institute proceedings regarding our competitors’ promotional practices or defend proceedings regarding our promotional practices. Legal proceedings are costly, and, even if we prevail, the cost of the legal proceedings could affect our profitability. In addition, litigation is time-consuming and could divert management's attention and resources away from our business. Moreover, in response to our claims against other parties, those parties could assert counterclaims against us.
RISKS RELATED TO GLOBAL OPERATIONS
If any of our facilities or those of our suppliers were damaged and/or our manufacturing or business processes interrupted, we could experience lost revenues and our business could be seriously harmed.
Damage to our manufacturing, distribution, development and/or research facilities because of fire, extreme weather conditions, natural disaster, power loss, communications failure, geopolitical disruption, unauthorized entry or other events, such as a flu or other health epidemic, such as COVID-19, could significantly disrupt our operations, the operations of suppliers and critical infrastructure and delay or prevent product manufacture and shipment during the time required to repair, rebuild or replace the damaged facilities. Certain of our manufacturing facilities are located in Puerto Rico, which in the past has experienced both severe hurricanes and other natural disasters. Climate change may increase both the frequency and severity of extreme weather conditions and natural disasters and, consequently, risks to our operations and growth. Although we maintain property damage and business interruption insurance coverage on these facilities, our insurance might not cover all losses under such circumstances, and we may not be able to renew or obtain such insurance in the future on acceptable terms with adequate coverage or at reasonable costs.
We are exposed to a variety of risks relating to our international sales and operations.
We generate significant revenues outside the U.S. in multiple foreign currencies, and in U.S. dollar-denominated transactions conducted with customers who generate revenue in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. For those foreign customers who purchase our products in U.S. dollars, currency fluctuations between the U.S. dollar and the currencies in which those
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customers do business may have a negative impact on the demand for our products in foreign countries where the U.S. dollar has increased in value compared to the local currency.
Since we have operations based outside the U.S. and we generate revenues and incur operating expenses in multiple foreign currencies, we experience currency exchange risk with respect to those foreign currency-denominated revenues and expenses. Our most significant currency exchange risk relates to transactions conducted in Australian dollars, British pounds, Canadian dollars, Chinese yuan, Euros, Japanese yen, and Swiss francs.
We cannot predict the consolidated effects of exchange rate fluctuations upon our future operating results because of the number of currencies involved, the variability of currency exposure and the potential volatility of currency exchange rates. Although we address currency risk management through regular operating and financing activities, and, on a limited basis, through the use of derivative financial instruments, those actions may not prove to be fully effective. For a description of our use of derivative financial instruments, see Note 6, Derivative Instruments to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K).
Our international operations subject us to laws regarding sanctioned countries, entities and persons, customs, import-export, laws regarding transactions in foreign countries, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and local anti-bribery and other laws regarding interactions with healthcare professionals, and product registration requirements. Among other things, these laws restrict, and in some cases prevent, U.S. companies from directly or indirectly selling goods, technology or services to people or entities in certain countries. In addition, these laws require that we exercise care in structuring our sales and marketing practices and effecting product registrations in foreign countries.
The Russia-Ukraine conflict and resulting sanctions and export restrictions are creating barriers to doing business in Russia and adversely impacting global supply chains. While we have no manufacturing, distribution or direct material suppliers in the region, we are closely monitoring the potential raw material or supplier impact in both Russia and Ukraine. Materials like palladium and neon, which are both dependent on Russia supply, are part of broader semiconductor shortages in industry. Additional sanctions, export restrictions, and potential countermeasures within Russia may lead to greater uncertainty and geopolitical shifts in Asia that could cause additional adverse impacts on global supply chains and our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
The United Kingdom’s (“UK”) exit from the European Union on January 31, 2020, commonly referred to as Brexit, has caused, and may continue to cause uncertainty in the global political markets. It is possible that Brexit could, among other things, affect the legal and regulatory environments, including the regulatory landscape concerning medical devices, to which our business is subject, impose greater restrictions on imports and exports between the UK and the EU and other parties, increase currency volatility and create economic and political uncertainty in the region.
As we seek to continue to expand and strengthen our international operations, we may experience difficulty in growing our sales in certain new markets and other international markets in which we are attempting to increase our presence due to, among other things, customer acceptance, undeveloped and/or unfamiliar distribution channels, regulatory restrictions and changes, and business knowledge of these markets.
From time to time, proposals are made to significantly change existing trade agreements and relationships between the U.S. and other countries. In recent years, the U.S. government has implemented substantial changes to U.S. trade policies, including import restrictions, increased import tariffs and changes in U.S. participation in multilateral trade agreements, such as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement to replace the former North American Free Trade Agreement. The ongoing global economic competition and trade tensions between the U.S. and China has resulted in the U.S. government assessing supplemental tariffs on certain goods imported from China and China’s assessment of retaliatory tariffs on certain imports of U.S. goods into China. In addition, the United States has assessed or proposed supplemental tariffs and quantitative restrictions on U.S. imports of certain products from other countries as well. Owing to the complex relationships between the U.S. and such other countries, political, diplomatic, military, or other events could result in business disruptions, including increased regulatory enforcement against companies, tariffs, trade embargoes, export restrictions and the termination or modification of existing trade agreements. The imposition of such restrictions could increase the cost of the Company’s products and the components and raw materials that go into making them, require the Company to change its operations and the products it offers and negatively impact consumer confidence and spending, all of which, both individually and in the aggregate, could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
GENERAL RISK FACTORS
Cyber-attacks or other disruptions to our information technology systems could adversely affect our business.
We are increasingly dependent on sophisticated information technology for our infrastructure and to support business decisions. Our information systems require an ongoing commitment of significant resources to maintain, protect, and enhance existing systems and develop new systems to keep pace with continuing changes in information processing technology, evolving systems and regulatory standards, the increasing need to protect patient and customer information, and changing customer
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patterns. An experienced third party maintains the enterprise business system used to support our transaction processing, accounting and financial reporting, and supply chain and manufacturing processes. Any significant breakdown, intrusion, interruption, corruption, or destruction of these systems, as well as any data breaches, could have a material, adverse effect on our business.
Third parties may attempt to breach our systems and may obtain data relating to patients, proprietary or sensitive information. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we may face increased cybersecurity risks due to our reliance on internet technology and the number of our employees who are working remotely, which may create additional opportunities for cybercriminals to exploit vulnerabilities. If we, or third parties on whom we rely, fail to maintain or protect our information systems and data integrity effectively, we could lose existing customers, have difficulty attracting new customers, suffer backlash from negative public relations, have regulatory sanctions or penalties imposed, have increases in operating expenses, incur expenses or lose revenues as a result of a data privacy breach, or suffer other adverse consequences.
We have programs, processes (including ongoing improvements) and technologies in place to prevent, detect, contain, respond to and mitigate security related threats and potential incidents. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or interrupt services change frequently and can be difficult to detect, anticipating, identifying or preventing these threats or mitigating them if and when they occur, may be challenging. We are also dependent on third party vendors to supply and/or support certain aspects of our information technology systems which may contain defects in design or manufacture or other problems that could result in system disruption or unexpectedly compromise the information security of our own systems. In addition, as we grow in part through new acquisitions we may face risks due to implementation, modification, or remediation of controls, procedures, and policies relating to data privacy and cybersecurity at the acquired business. We continue to consolidate and integrate the number of systems we operate, and to upgrade and expand our information system capabilities for stable and secure business operations. Despite our implementation of controls to protect our systems and sensitive, confidential or personal data or information, we may be vulnerable to material security breaches, theft, misplaced, lost or corrupted data, employee errors and/or malfeasance (including misappropriation by departing employees) that could potentially lead to the compromising of sensitive, confidential or personal data or information, improper use of our systems, software solutions or networks, unauthorized access, use, disclosure, modification or destruction of information, defective products, production downtimes and operational disruptions. In addition, a cyber-related attack could result in other negative consequences, including damage to our reputation or competitiveness, remediation or increased protection costs, litigation or regulatory action.
Environmental, social and corporate governance (ESG) issues, including those related to climate change and sustainability, may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and damage our reputation.
There is an increasing focus from certain investors, customers, consumers, employees and other stakeholders concerning ESG matters. Additionally, public interest and legislative pressure related to public companies’ ESG practices continue to grow. Consistent with these developments, we published our inaugural ESG Report which includes performance highlights in key areas such as employee health and safety, diversity and inclusion, community impact, ethics and compliance, and environmental responsibility. In addition, we formally expanded Board oversight to include ESG strategy and reporting. If, however, our ESG practices fail to meet regulatory requirements or investor, customer, consumer, employee or other stakeholders' evolving expectations and standards for responsible corporate citizenship in areas including environmental stewardship, support for local communities, Board of Director and employee diversity, human capital management, employee health and safety practices, product quality, supply chain management, corporate governance and transparency, our reputation, brand and employee retention may be negatively impacted, and our customers and suppliers may be unwilling to continue to do business with us.
If we do not adapt to or comply with new regulations, or fail to meet evolving investor, industry or stakeholder expectations and concerns regarding ESG issues, investors may reconsider their capital investment in our Company, and customers may choose to stop purchasing our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business or financial condition.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
As of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we had no unresolved comments from the staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission that were received not less than 180 days before the end of our 2022 fiscal year.
ITEM 2.PROPERTIES
As of December 31, 2022, we lease approximately 166,991 square feet of space in Princeton, NJ, where we house our principal headquarters, sales operations, and support functions. This lease expires in 2035.
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We have key manufacturing and research facilities located in California, Indiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Ohio, Puerto Rico, Tennessee, Utah, France, Germany, Ireland and Switzerland. Our instrument procurement operations are located in Germany. Our primary distribution centers are located in Kentucky, Nevada, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Italy, Japan, and China. In addition, we lease several smaller facilities to support additional administrative, assembly, and distribution operations. Third parties own and operate the facilities in Nevada, Kentucky, Japan and Belgium. We own facilities in Saint Aubin Le Monial, France, Rietheim-Weilheim, Germany and Ohio and we lease all of our other facilities. We also have repair centers in Ohio, Australia, France, Japan, China and Germany, and field service presence in Canada, Dubai, India, Italy, Netherlands, Singapore, Thailand and United Kingdom.
Our manufacturing facilities are registered with the FDA. Our facilities are subject to FDA inspection to ensure compliance with Quality System regulations. For further information regarding the status of FDA inspections, see the Item 1. Business –Government Regulation and Compliance Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – FDA Matters in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

ITEM 3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Information pertaining to legal proceedings can be found in Note 15, Commitment and Contingencies, to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K).
ITEM 4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

PART II
ITEM 5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information, Holders and Dividends
Our common stock trades on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “IART.” The number of stockholders of record as of February 21, 2023 was approximately 779, which includes stockholders whose shares were held in nominee name.
Dividend Policy
We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock since our formation. Our Senior Credit Facility (as defined below) limits the amount of dividends that we may pay. Any future determinations to pay cash dividends on our common stock will be at the discretion of the Board and will depend upon our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and other factors deemed relevant by the Board.
Sales of Unregistered Securities
There were no sales of unregistered securities during the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 or 2020.
Sale of Registered Securities
There were no sales of registered securities during the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 or 2020.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On January 12, 2022, the Company entered into a $125.0 million accelerated share repurchase ("2022 ASR") and received 1.48 million shares of the Company common stock at inception of the 2022 ASR, which represented approximately 80% of the expected total shares under the 2022 ASR. On March 24, 2022, the early exercise provision was exercised by 2022 ASR counterparty. Upon settlement on March 24, 2022, the Company received an additional 0.46 million shares determined using the volume-weighted average price of the Company's common stock during the term of the 2022 ASR.
On April 26, 2022, the Board of Directors authorized the Company to repurchase up to $225.0 million of the Company’s common stock. The program allows the Company to repurchase its shares opportunistically from time to time. The repurchase authorization expires in December 2024. This stock repurchase authorization replaces the previous $225 million stock repurchase authorization, of which $100 million remained authorized at the time of its replacement, and which was otherwise set to expire on December 31, 2022. Purchases may be affected through one or more open market transactions, privately negotiated transactions, transactions structured through investment banking institutions, or a combination of the foregoing.
On January 26, 2023, the Company entered into a $150 million accelerated share repurchase ("2023 ASR") and received 2.1 million shares of the Company common stock at inception of the 2023 ASR, which represented approximately 80% of the expected total shares of under the 2023 SAR. The remaining repurchase transactions are expected to be completed in the first half of 2023.
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For the year ended December 31, 2021, there were no repurchases of the Company’s common stock as part of the share repurchase authorization.
See Note 8, Treasury Stock to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for further details.
Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plan
The information required by this item regarding our equity compensation plans is incorporated herein by reference to Item 12 of Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Stock Performance Graph
The graph below compares the five-year total return to stockholders on our common stock with the return of the Standard & Poor’s (S&P) 500 Stock Index and the S&P Healthcare Equipment Index. The Company’s cumulative shareholder return is based on an investment of $100 on December 31, 2017 and is compared to the cumulative total return of the S&P indices mentioned above over the period with a like amount invested.

https://cdn.kscope.io/5856a7cf6a41e142899c0139153ed28d-iart-20221231_g3.jpg

Note: The stock price performance shown on the graph above is not indicative of future price performance. This graph shall not be deemed filed for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act or otherwise subject to the liabilities of that section nor shall it be deemed incorporated by reference in any filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, regardless of any general incorporation language in such filing.
ITEM 6.[Reserved]
ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
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The following discussion and analysis provides information management believes to be relevant to understanding our financial condition and results of operations. For a full understanding of financial condition and results of operations, it should be read together with the selected consolidated financial data and our financial statements with the related notes appearing elsewhere in this report. The discussion focuses on our financial results for the year ended December 31, 2022 and 2021. The comparison of fiscal 2021 to 2020 has been omitted from this Form 10-K, but can be referenced in our Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021—“Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” filed with the SEC on February 24, 2022.
We have made statements in this report which constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. The Company’s actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including but not limited to those set forth under Item 1A. Risk Factors. We have made statements in this report which constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions about the Company and other matters. Please refer to “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and Item 1A. Risk Factors for a discussion of the factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected in these statements. The following information concerning our business, results of operations and financial condition should also be read in conjunction with the information included under Item 1. Business, Item 1A. Risk Factors and Item 15. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
GENERAL
Integra LifeSciences is a global leader in regenerative tissue technologies and neurological solutions dedicated to limiting uncertainty for clinicians so they can focus on providing the best patient care. Founded in 1989 with the acquisition of an engineered collagen technology platform used to repair and regenerate tissue, Integra LifeSciences Holdings Corporation common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “IART.” Integra has developed numerous product lines from this technology for applications ranging from burn and deep tissue wounds to the repair of dura mater in the brain, as well as nerves and tendons. The Company has expanded its base regenerative technology business to include surgical instruments, neurosurgical products and advanced wound care through global acquisitions and product development to meet the evolving needs of its customers and enhance patient care.
Integra manufactures and sells medical technologies and products in two reportable business segments: Codman Specialty Surgical ("CSS") and Tissue Technologies ("TT"). The CSS segment, which represents approximately two-thirds of our total revenue, consists of market-leading technologies and instrumentation used for a wide range of specialties, such as neurosurgery, neurocritical care and otolaryngology. We are the world leader in neurosurgery and one of the top three providers in instruments used in precision, specialty, and general surgical procedures. Our TT segment generates about one-third of our overall revenue and focuses on three main areas: complex wound surgery, surgical reconstruction, and peripheral nerve repair.
We have key manufacturing and research facilities located in California, Indiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Ohio, Puerto Rico, Tennessee, Utah, France, Germany, Ireland and Switzerland. We source most of our handheld surgical instruments and dural sealant products through specialized third-party vendors.
Integra is committed to delivering high quality products that positively impact the lives of millions of patients and their families. We focus on four key pillars of our strategy: 1) enabling an execution-focused culture, 2) optimizing relevant scale, 3) advancing innovation and agility, and 4) leading in customer experience. We believe that by sharpening our focus on these areas through improved planning and communication, optimization of our infrastructure, and strategically aligned acquisitions, we can build scale, increase competitiveness and achieve our long-term goals.
To this end, the executive leadership team has established the following key priorities aligned to the following areas of focus:
Strategic Acquisitions. An important part of the Company's strategy is pursuing strategic transactions and licensing agreements that increase relevant scale in the clinical areas in which Integra competes. Our growth strategy includes the acquisition of businesses, assets or products lines to increase the breadth of our offerings, the reach of our product portfolios and drive relevant scale to our customers. On December 6, 2022, the Company completed the acquisition of SIA, which develops, markets and sells DuraSorb, a resorbable synthetic matrix for plastic and reconstructive surgery. This acquisition will advance Integra’s global strategy in breast reconstruction, expanding plans to access the U.S. market where SIA is pursuing pre-market approval for use in IBBR. We also continued to advance the development of pioneering neurosurgical technologies with the expansion our product offering of regenerative technologies from our 2021 ACell acquisition. See Note 4, Acquisitions and Divestitures, to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for additional details.
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Portfolio Optimization and New Product Introductions. We are investing in innovative product development to drive a multi-generational pipeline for our key product franchises. Our product development efforts span across our key global franchises focused on potential technological innovations for significant returns on investment. In addition to new product development, we are funding studies to gather clinical evidence to support launches, ensure market access and improve reimbursement for existing products. In addition to acquisitions and organic reinvestment, we continually look to optimize our portfolio towards higher growth and higher margin businesses. As such, we may opportunistically divest businesses or discontinue products where we see limited runway for future value creation in line with our aspirations due in part to changes in the market, business fundamentals or the regulatory environment.
Commercial Channel Investments. Investing in our sales channels is a core part of our strategy to create specialization and greater focus on reaching new and existing customers and addressing their needs. To support our commercial efforts in Tissue Technologies, we utilize a two-tier specialist model to increase our presence in focused segments to help serve the evolving needs of our customers. In addition, we continue to build upon our leadership brands across our product franchises in both CSS and TT to engage customers through enterprise-wide contracts with leading hospitals, integrated delivery networks and global purchasing organizations in the United States. Internationally, we have increased our commercial resources significantly in key emerging markets and are making investments to support our sales organization and maximize our commercial opportunities. Domestically, we have also increased our TT sales force in the United States to support the expanded regenerative tissue product portfolio that includes ACell products. These investments in our international and domestic sales channel position us well for expansion and long-term growth.
Customer Experience. We aspire to be ranked as a best-in-class provider and are committed to strengthening our relationships with all customers. We continue to invest in technologies, systems and processes to enhance the customer experience. In 2022, we outsourced certain transactional back-office finance and customer service activities to enhance customer quality, build scale for future growth, and capture cost efficiencies. We also launched digital tools and programs, resources and virtual product training to drive continued customer familiarity with our growing portfolio of medical technologies globally. .
New Product Introductions and Research and Development Updates
We continue to invest in collecting clinical evidence to support the Company's existing products and new product launches, and to ensure that we obtain market access for broader and more cost-effective solutions.
In 2022, we made progress to several enhancements to our CUSA Clarity Tissue Ablation System. The extended laparoscopic tip was launched in the U.S. to enhance laparoscopic liver procedures. In addition, a single-sided bone tip received 510(k) clearance. Commercial launch is expected in the first quarter of 2023. We continue to update our CUSA Clarity platform by incorporating new ultrasonic handpiece and integrated electrosurgical capabilities.
In each area, we continue to benefit from products launched over the past several years, including our new electrosurgery generator and irrigator system, an innovative customer-centric toolkit for our Certas® Plus Programmable Valve along with additional shunt configurations. In Japan, we are experiencing strong growth as a result of the successful launch of DuraGen in mid-2019, which is the first and only collagen xenograft approved for use as a dural substitute in the country.
In 2022, we continued to advance the two early-stage technology platforms we acquired in 2019. Through the acquisition of Arkiss, we added a platform technology, CerebroFlo EVD, which is a catheter with Endexo technology, a permanent additive designed to reduce the potential for catheter obstruction due to thrombus formation. The CerebroFlo EVD Catheter has demonstrated an average of 99% less thrombus accumulation onto its surface, in vitro, compared to a market leading EVD catheter. In 2019, we also acquired Rebound Therapeutics which specialized in a single-use medical device, known as Aurora Surgiscope, which is the only tubular retractor system designed for cranial surgery with an integrated access channel, camera and lighting. In 2021, we began and continued to conduct a limited clinical launch of the Aurora Surgiscope for use in minimally invasive neurosurgery as well as initiated a registry called MIRROR to collect data on early surgical intervention using this same technology platform for the treatment of ICH. In 2022, we have continued to execute on our growth initiatives. We launched the Aurora Evacuator with Coagulation device in the U.S., designed to be used in conjunction with our Aurora Surgiscope to safely address and evacuate blood in the brain caused by hemorrhagic stroke. 
We are focused on the development of core clinical applications in our electromechanical technologies portfolio. In June 2022, we launched the Neutus® EVD system, our first EVD in China. The Neutus EVD system is manufactured in China by Shanghai Haoju Medical Technology Co., Ltd. under an exclusive distribution arrangement. The device is used in the management of CSF and is highly complementary to our Bactiseal® catheter and advanced intercranial pressure monitoring products. In 2021, we launched our CereLink ICP Monitor System in the U.S. and Europe direct markets and continued the global rollout in the first half of 2022. CereLink provides enhanced accuracy, usability and advanced data presentation that provides clinicians with uncompromised, advanced continuous ICP monitoring that until now, has not been available when treating patients with traumatic brain injuries. Refer below to the information appearing under the FDA Matters heading for additional information on the voluntary recall of the CereLink ICP Monitor System.
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Within our TT segment, in 2022, we launched NeuraGen 3D Nerve Guide Matrix, a resorbable implant for repair of peripheral nerve discontinuities and engineered to create an optimized environment for nerve regeneration. During 2021, we completed one of the largest diabetic foot ulcers ("DFU"), randomized controlled trials of the PriMatrix Dermal Repair Scaffold for the management of DFU. This multi-center study enrolled more than 225 patients with chronic DFU's over the course of 12-week treatments and 4-week follow-up phases. The results of this study, which was published in the Journal of Wound Care, demonstrated that PriMatrix plus standard of care SOC consisting of sharp debridement, infection elimination, use of dressings and offloading was significantly more likely to achieve complete wound closure compared with SOC alone, with a median number of one application of the product. During 2020, we announced positive clinical and economic data on Integra® Bilayer Wound Matrix ("IBWM") in complex lower extremity reconstruction based on two retrospective studies recently published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, the official journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. As surgeons look for ways to efficiently and effectively repair and close wounds, IBWM helps address the efficiency needed in operating rooms by reducing both the operating time and costs to hospitals and patients.
FDA Matters
On August 18, 2022, the Company, after consultation with the FDA and other regulatory authorities outside of the United States, initiated an immediate voluntary global product removal of all CereLink intracranial pressure monitors as a result of customer reports about monitors whose pressure readings were out of range. The Company believes that the out-of-range readings are principally caused by electrical interference from the external environment and/or interference from a component on the circuit board of the monitor. These out-of-range readings have occurred at a low incidence rate and at a limited number of sites; however, out of an abundance of caution, the Company removed all CereLink monitors from the field.
The Company Is continuing its investigation into the matter in order to remedy the observed issue and plans to resume shipment of the CereLink monitors as soon as any such issues have been resolved. Based on outlook for returning the product to market and feedback from customers, the Company recorded a $1.9 million provision for product returns, as a reduction of net revenue, and a $0.8 million rework accrual in cost of goods sold in 2022.
We manufacture and distribute products derived from human tissue for which FDA has specific regulations governing human cells, tissues and cellular and tissue-based products ("HCT/P"). An HCT/P is a product containing or consisting of human cells or tissue intended for transplantation into a human patient. Refer to Item 1. Business and Item 1A. Risk Factors for further details around these FDA regulations and their potential effect on the Company's portfolio of morselized amniotic material-based products as well as the impact on consolidated revenues.
On March 7, 2019, TEI Biosciences, Inc. ("TEI"), a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company received a Warning Letter (the “Warning Letter”), dated March 6, 2019, from the FDA. The warning letter related to quality systems issues at TEI's manufacturing facility located in Boston, Massachusetts. The letter resulted from an inspection held at that facility in October and November 2018 and did not identify any new observations that were not already provided in the Form 483 that followed the inspection. The Company submitted its initial response to the FDA Warning Letter on March 28, 2019 and provides regular progress reports to the FDA as to its corrective actions and, since the conclusion of the inspection, has undertaken significant efforts to remediate the observations and continues to do so. On October 28, 2021 the FDA initiated an inspection of the facility and at the conclusion of the inspection issued a FDA Form 483 on November 12, 2021 (the "2021 Form 483"). The Company provided an initial response to the inspection observations and will continue to provide responses to FDA. The Warning Letter and the 2021 FDA Form 483 do not restrict the Company’s ability to manufacture or ship products or require the recall of any products, nor do they restrict our ability to seek FDA 510(k) clearance of products. Additionally, premarket approval applications for Class III devices to which the Quality System regulation violations are reasonably related will not be approved until the violations have been corrected. The TEI Boston facility manufactures extracellular bovine matrix products. We cannot give any assurances that the FDA will be satisfied with our response to the Warning Letter or as to the expected date of the resolution of the matters included in the letter. Until the issues cited in the letter are resolved to the FDA’s satisfaction, the FDA may initiate additional regulatory action without further notice. Any adverse regulatory action, depending on its magnitude, may restrict us from effectively manufacturing, marketing and selling our products and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Revenues of products manufactured in the TEI Boston facility for the year ended December 31, 2022 were approximately 5.3% of consolidated revenues.
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ACQUISITIONS & DIVESTITURES
Acquisitions
Our growth strategy includes the acquisition of businesses, assets or products lines to increase the breadth of our offerings and the reach of our product portfolios and drive relevant scale to our customers. As a result of several acquisitions from 2021 through 2022, our financial results for the year ended December 31, 2022 may not be directly comparable to those of the corresponding prior-year periods. See Note 4, Acquisitions and Divestitures, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for a further discussion.
Surgical Innovation Associates, Inc.
On December 6, 2022, the Company completed its acquisition of SIA for an acquisition purchase price of $51.5 million. In addition to the purchase price, the acquisition includes two separate contingent considerations payments, which are dependent on 1) achieving certain revenue-based performance milestones in 2023, 2024, and 2025 (up to $50M in additional payments), as well as 2) the approval by the FDA of the PMA application for DuraSorb for certain uses by certain timing targets (up to $40M in additional payments). SIA was a privately-held company whose core technology, DuraSorb is a fully resorbable scaffold of a globally accepted polymer, cleared for use in hernia repair, abdominal wall, and other soft tissue reinforcement. DuraSorb sales will be reported within Integra’s TT segment as part of its Wound Reconstruction and Care franchise. See Note 4, Acquisitions and Divestitures, to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for details.
ACell Inc.
On January 20, 2021, the Company acquired ACell for an acquisition purchase price of $306.9 million plus contingent consideration obligations of up to $100 million, that may be payable upon achieving certain revenue-based performance milestones in 2022, 2023 and 2025. ACell was a privately-held company that offered a portfolio of regenerative products for complex wound management, including developing and commercializing products based on MatriStem Urinary Bladder Matrix, a technology platform derived from porcine urinary bladder extracellular matrix. See Note 4, Acquisitions and Divestitures, to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for additional details.
Divestiture
On August 31, 2022, the Company completed the sale of its TWC business to Gentell for $28.8 million, which consists of $27.8 million in cash plus $1.0 million in contingent consideration which may be received upon achieving certain revenue-based performance milestones two years after the closing date. The proceeds from the sale of the TWC business of $27.8 million is presented in the consolidated statement of cash flows net of cash transferred of $3.5 million and other transaction fees. The transaction included the sale of the Company's TWC products, such as sponges, gauze and conforming bandages, and certain advanced wound care dressings, such as supportive, calcium alginate, hydrogel, and foam dressings. In connection with the sale, the Company recognized $0.6 million as a gain from the sale of business in the consolidated statement of operations for year ended December 31, 2022. The transaction is subject to final working capital adjustments. See Note 4, Acquisitions and Divestitures, to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Form 10-K) for details.
On January 4, 2021, the Company completed its sale of its Extremity Orthopedics business to Smith & Nephew. The transaction included the sale of the Company's upper and lower Extremity Orthopedics product portfolio, including ankle and shoulder arthroplasty and hand and wrist product lines. The Company received an aggregate purchase price of $240.0 million from Smith & Nephew and concurrently paid $41.5 million to the Consortium of Focused Orthopedists, LLC ("CFO"), effectively terminating the licensing agreement between Integra and CFO relating to the development of shoulder arthroplasty products. The Company recognized a gain of $41.8 million in connection with the sale that is presented in "Gain from the sale of business" in the consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December, 31, 2021. See Note 4, Acquisitions and Divestitures of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for details.

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OPTIMIZATION AND INTEGRATION ACTIVITIES
As a result of our ongoing acquisition strategy and significant growth in recent years, we have undertaken cost-saving initiatives to consolidate manufacturing operations, distribution facilities and transfer activities, eliminate duplicative positions, realign various sales and marketing activities, and expand and upgrade production capacity for our regenerative technology products. These efforts are expected to continue and while we expect a positive impact from ongoing restructuring, integration, and manufacturing transfer and expansion activities, such results remain uncertain. In support of our continued focus on product margins during 2022, we closed a manufacturing facility located in France and began the transfer of production to the Company’s existing Switzerland facility. The transfer completed in the fourth quarter of 2022. In 2022, we outsourced certain transactional back-office finance and customer service activities to enhance customer quality, build scale for future growth, and capture cost efficiencies. This transition also completed in the fourth quarter of 2022. While the transition was complete in 2022, we are continuing to work with our outsource provider to transform our processes and gain efficiencies.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Executive Summary
Net income for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $180.6 million, or $2.16 per diluted share, compared to $169.1 million, or $1.98 per diluted share for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Income before taxes includes the following special charges: 
 Years Ended December 31,
Dollars in thousands20222021
Acquisition, divestiture and integration-related charges (1)
$(18,849)$(11,712)
Structural optimization charges23,072 20,762 
EU medical device regulation45,147 24,375 
Total49,370 33,425 
(1) See Note 4, Acquisitions and Divestitures of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for details.

The items reported above are reflected in the consolidated statements of operations as follows:
 Years Ended December 31,
Dollars in thousands20222021
Cost of goods sold $11,722 $32,334 
Research and development 21,882 17,487 
Selling, general and administrative20,584 31,013 
Gain from the sale of business(644)(41,798)
Other (income) expense(4,174)(5,611)
Total49,370 33,425 

We typically define special charges as items for which the amounts and/or timing of such expenses may vary significantly from period to period, depending upon our acquisition, divestiture, integration and restructuring activities, and for which the amounts are non-cash in nature, or for which the amounts are not expected to recur at the same magnitude. We believe that given our ongoing strategy of seeking acquisitions, our continuing focus on rationalizing our existing manufacturing and distribution infrastructure and our continuing review of various product lines in relation to our current business strategy, some of the special charges discussed above could recur with similar materiality in the future.
We believe that the separate identification of these special charges provides important supplemental information to investors regarding financial and business trends relating to our financial condition and results of operations. Investors may find this information useful in assessing comparability of our operating performance from period to period, against the business model objectives that management has established, and against other companies in our industry. We provide this information to investors so that they can analyze our operating results in the same way that management does and to use this information in their assessment of our core business and valuation of Integra.
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Revenues and Gross Margin
Our revenues and gross margin on product revenues were as follows:
 Years Ended December 31,
Dollars in thousands20222021
Segment Net Sales
Codman Specialty Surgical$1,019,564 $1,025,232 
Tissue Technologies538,102 517,216 
Total revenues1,557,666 1,542,448 
Cost of goods sold587,355 597,808 
Gross margin on total revenues $970,311 $944,640 
Gross margin as a percentage of total revenues62.3 %61.2 %
Revenues
For the year ended December 31, 2022, total revenues increased by $15.2 million, or 1.0%, to $1,557.7 million from $1,542.4 million during the prior year. This increase is inclusive of an unfavorable foreign currency impact of $37.9 million, as well as a $10.2 million decrease that impacts both domestic and international revenues, related to the divestiture of the TWC business. Excluding the impacts of these items, domestic revenues increased by $41.6 million, or 3.8%. International revenues increased by $21.7 million or 4.8%.
In the CSS segment, revenues were $1,019.6 million which was a decrease of $5.7 million, or 0.6% as compared to the prior-year period. This increase is inclusive of a $34.1 million unfavorable foreign currency impact on revenue. Excluding the impact of foreign currency, the CSS segment revenues increased $28.4 million as compared to the prior year period. This increase was driven primarily by low single digits growth in both our Neurosurgery and Instruments portfolios as compared to the same period in the prior year. The increase in our Neurosurgery portfolio was driven primarily by growth in advanced energy and CSF management, partially offset by the voluntary recall of the CereLink ICP monitoring system.

In the TT segment, revenues were $538.1 million, which was an increase of $20.9 million, or 4.0% as compared to the prior-year period.. Excluding the impact of foreign currency of $3.8 million and the divestiture impact of TWC of $10.2 million, the TT segment revenues in the third quarter increased by $34.9 million. This increase was driven by mid-single digit increases in our Wound Reconstruction business, led by Integra® Dermal Matrices, SurgiMend and ACell MicroMatrix and low double digit increased in our Private Label business driven by higher customer demand and favorable order timing.
Gross Margin
Gross margin was $970.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase of $25.7 million from $944.6 million for the same period last year. Gross margin as a percentage of revenues was 62.3% in 2022 and 61.2% in 2021. The increase in gross margin percentage was due to higher revenues and a reduction of inventory step up amortization in connection with the acquisition of ACell in the prior year. These were partially offset by CereLink recall impacts, unfavorable regional mix, and higher material and labor costs.
Operating Expenses
The following is a summary of operating expenses as a percent of total revenues: 
 Years Ended December 31,
 20222021
Research and development6.5 %6.0 %
Selling, general and administrative39.6 %41.3 %
Intangible asset amortization0.9 %1.1 %
 Total operating expenses47.0 %48.4 %
Total operating expenses, which consist of research and development, selling, general and administrative, and intangible asset amortization expenses, decreased by $16.0 million or 2.1% to $731.4 million in 2022, compared to $747.4 million in the prior year. The decrease in operating expenses is due to lower selling, general and administrative costs and amortization partially offset by higher R&D spending.
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The Company continues to manage and prioritize its operating costs to increase organic investments that will drive long-term growth including the support of new product development and introductions, clinical studies, geographic expansion and targeted U.S. sales channel expansion.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses for the year ended December 31, 2022 increased by $8.1 million as compared to the prior year. This increase in spending resulted from additional spending on new product development, clinical studies and spending related to the EU Medical Device Regulation compliance activities.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2022 decreased by $21.1 million as compared to the prior year driven primarily by the $18.1 million reduction in fair value of contingent consideration for ACell. The remainder of the decrease is a result of reduced employee related costs and stock-based compensation, partially offset by increased selling costs on commissions and investment in sales force expansion.
Intangible Asset Amortization
Amortization expense (excluding amounts reported in cost of product revenues for technology-based intangible assets) in 2022 was $13.9 million compared to $16.9 million in 2021 primarily due to a reduction associated with the end of the amortization period for a certain customer relationship intangible asset. In addition, there was a decrease in amortization expense as a result of intangible assets sold with the TWC divestiture.
We may discontinue certain products in the future as we continue to assess the profitability of our product lines. As our profitability assessment evolves, we may make further decisions about our trade names and incur additional impairment charges or accelerated amortization. We expect total annual amortization expense to be approximately $82.3 million in 2023, $81.7 million in 2024, $81.7 million in 2025, $81.5 million in 2026, $79.6 million in 2027 and $551.6 million thereafter.

Non-Operating Income and Expenses
The following is a summary of non-operating income and expenses:
 Years Ended December 31,
Dollars in thousands20222021
Interest income$11,917 $6,737 
Interest expense(49,594)(50,395)
Gain from sale of business644 41,798 
Other income, net12,007 19,307 
Total non-operating income and expense$(25,026)$17,447 
Interest Income
Interest income for the year ended December 31, 2022 increased by $5.2 million as compared to the same period last year primarily due to higher interest rates in 2022 compared to 2021.
Interest Expense
Interest expense for the year ended December 31, 2022 decreased by $0.8 million as compared to the same period last year primarily from a lower outstanding borrowing on the Senior Secured Credit Facility partially offset by increased interest rates.
Gain from the sale of businesses
On August 31, 2022, the Company completed its previously announced sale of its TWC business to Gentell and recognized $0.6 million as a gain from the sale of the business for the year ended December 31, 2022. On January 4, 2021, the Company completed its sale of its Extremity Orthopedics business and recognized a gain of $41.8 million in the prior year.
Other Income, Net
Other income, net for the year ended December 31, 2022 decreased by $7.3 million. This was primarily due to due unfavorable impact of foreign exchange, as well as lower income associated with the transition services agreement invoicing from the divestiture of the Extremity Orthopedics business.
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Income Taxes
Our effective income tax rate was 15.6% and 21.2% of income before income taxes in 2022 and 2021, respectively. See Note 13, Income Taxes, in our consolidated financial statements for a reconciliation of the United States federal statutory rate to our effective tax rate. Our effective tax rate could vary from year to year depending on, among other factors, tax law changes, the geographic and business mix and taxable earnings and losses. We consider these factors and others, including our history of generating taxable earnings, in assessing our ability to realize deferred tax assets.
Our effective tax rate could vary from year to year depending on, among other factors, tax law changes, the geographic and business mix and taxable earnings and losses. We consider these factors and others, including our history of generating taxable earnings, in assessing our ability to realize deferred tax assets. We estimate our worldwide effective income tax rate for 2023 to be approximately 20.7%, estimated based on existing tax laws.
At December 31, 2022, the Company had $9.7 million of valuation allowance against the remaining $195.2 million of gross deferred tax assets recorded at December 31, 2022. Our deferred tax asset valuation allowance decreased by $0.1 million in 2022, remaining substantially unchanged in 2021. This valuation allowance relates to deferred tax assets for which the Company does not believe it has satisfied the more likely than not threshold for realization.
At December 31, 2022, we had net operating loss carryforwards of $79.5 million for federal income tax purposes, $75.5 million for foreign income tax purposes and $37.9 million for state income tax purposes to offset future taxable income. The federal net operating loss carryforwards increased during 2022 due to the acquisition of SIA. Of the total federal net operating loss carryforwards, $60.9 million expire through 2037 and $18.6 million have an indefinite carryforward period. Regarding the foreign net operating loss carryforwards, $16.4 million have an indefinite carryforward period. The state net operating loss carryforwards expire in 2036.
As of December 31, 2022, the Company has not provided deferred income taxes on unrepatriated earnings from foreign subsidiaries as they are deemed to be indefinitely reinvested unless there is a manner under which to remit the earnings with no material tax cost. Such taxes would primarily be attributable to foreign withholding taxes and local income taxes when such earnings are distributed.
GEOGRAPHIC PRODUCT REVENUES AND OPERATIONS
The Company attributes revenues to geographic areas based on the location of the customer. Total revenue by major geographic area consisted of the following:
 Years Ended December 31,
Dollars in thousands20222021
United States$1,126,810 $1,089,526 
Europe170,903 191,327 
Asia Pacific176,477 182,034 
Rest of World83,476 79,561 
Total Revenues$1,557,666 $1,542,448 
The Company generates significant revenues outside the U.S., a portion of which are U.S. dollar-denominated transactions conducted with customers that generate revenue in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. As a result, currency fluctuations between the U.S. dollar and the currencies in which those customers do business could have an impact on the demand for the Company's products in foreign countries. Local economic conditions, regulatory compliance or political considerations, the effectiveness of our sales representatives and distributors, local competition and changes in local medical practice all may combine to affect our sales into markets outside the U.S.
Domestic revenues increased by $37.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the same period last year. These increases are inclusive of $4.4 million related to the divestiture of the TWC business. European sales decreased by $20.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the same period last year. Sales to customers in Asia Pacific decreased by $5.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the same period last year. The Rest of the World for the year ended December 31, 2022 increased by $3.9 million compared to the same period last year. The international revenues were impacted by a $37.9 million unfavorable foreign exchange impact as well as $5.8 million related to the divestiture of the TWC business.
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LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Working Capital
At December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, working capital was $840.6 million and $813.7 million, respectively. Working capital consists of total current assets less total current liabilities as presented in the consolidated balance sheets.
Cash and Marketable Securities
The Company had cash and cash equivalents totaling approximately $456.7 million and $513.4 million at December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively, which are valued based on Level 1 measurements in the fair value hierarchy. At December 31, 2022, our non-U.S. subsidiaries held approximately $229.8 million of cash and cash equivalents that are available for use outside the U.S. The Company asserts that it has the ability and intends to indefinitely reinvest the undistributed earnings from its foreign operations unless there is no material tax cost to remit the earnings into the U.S.

Cash Flows
 Year Ended December 31,
Dollars in thousands20222021
Net cash provided by operating activities $264,469 $312,427 
Net cash used in investing activities (58,580)(161,443)
Net cash used (provided) by financing activities(251,953)(98,226)
Effect of exchange rate fluctuations on cash(10,723)(9,476)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents$(56,787)$43,282 
Cash Flows Provided by Operating Activities
Operating cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2022 decreased by $48.0 million compared to the same period in 2021. Net income after removing the impact of the gain on sale of businesses and non-cash adjustments increased for the year ended December 31, 2022, by approximately $9.6 million as compared to 2021 primarily due to earnings from higher revenues. The changes in assets and liabilities, net of business acquisitions, decreased cash flows by $39.4 million in 2022 as compared to the increase in cash flows of $18.2 million for the same period in 2021. The change in 2022 is mainly attributable to increases in inventory and accounts receivable. The increase in inventory is due to a build up of safety stock due to supply chain challenges. The increase in accounts receivable is due to increased sales as well as a decrease in days sales outstanding.
Operating cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2021 increased by $108.6 million compared to the same period in 2020. Net income after removing the impact of the gain on sale of business and non-cash adjustments increased for the year ended December 31, 2021, by approximately $49.1 million as compared to the same period in 2020 primarily due to the continuing revenue recovery in the current year as compared to the height of the COVID-19 pandemic in the prior year. The changes in assets and liabilities, net of business acquisitions, increased cash flows from operating activities in the current year by $18.2 million compared to the decrease of $41.3 million for the same period in 2020. The improvement in 2021 working capital is attributable to a decrease in inventory of $5.4 million due to investments in building safety stock made in the prior year where inventory increased by $48.3 million as well as improved sales in 2021.
Cash Flows Used in Investing Activities
During the year ended December 31, 2022, we paid $42.3 million for capital expenditures to support operations improvement initiatives at a number of our manufacturing facilities and other information technology investments, $51.5 million to acquire SIA, as well as the $4.7 million payment related to the final developmental milestone for Rebound Therapeutics Corporation. This was partially offset by the net proceeds from the sale of the TWC business of $24.0 million. The proceeds from the sale of the TWC business of $27.8 million is presented net of cash transferred of $3.5 million and other transaction fees. Additionally, the Company also received $4.9 million proceeds on cross-currency swaps designated as net investment hedge.
During the year ended December 31, 2021, we paid a net cash amount of $303.9 million in relation to the acquisition of ACell and received net proceeds of $190.5 million for the sale of the Extremity Orthopedics business. The Company also paid for $48.0 million capital expenditures to support operations improvement initiatives at a number of our manufacturing facilities and other information technology investments.
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Cash Flows (Used in) Provided by Financing Activities
Uses of cash from financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2022 primarily related to the purchase of treasury stock of $125.0 million under the 2022 accelerated share repurchase agreement that was completed in the first quarter of 2022. In addition, the Company had $24.6 million in cash taxes paid in net equity settlements as a result of the departure of the former chief executive officer of the Company. The Company also had repayments of $148.6 million under our Senior Credit Facility and Securitization Facility offset by $40.8 million borrowings under our Senior Credit Facility and Securitization Facility. The Company also had $5.5 million proceeds from the exercise of stock options. In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we refer to the sixth amendment and restatement of our Senior Credit Facility with a syndicate of lending banks with Bank of America, N.A., as Administrative Agent as the "Senior Credit Facility."
Uses of cash from financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2021 were repayments of $125.5 million on the revolving portion of our Senior Credit Facility and Securitization Facility. In addition, the Company had $4.8 million in cash taxes paid in net equity settlements. These uses were offset by $6.8 million proceeds from the exercise of stock options and $25.5 million borrowings under our Senior Credit Facility and Securitization Facility.
Amended and Restated Senior Credit Agreement, Convertible Senior Notes, Securitization and Related Hedging Activities
See Note 5, Debt, to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for a discussion of our Amended and Restated Senior Credit Agreement, the 2025 Notes and Securitization Facility and Note 6, Derivative Instruments to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for discussion of our hedging activities. We are forecasting that sales and earnings for the next twelve months will be sufficient to remain in compliance with our financial covenants under the terms of the February 2020 Amendment and July 2020 Amendment to the Senior Credit Facility.
Share Repurchase Plan
On January 12, 2022, the Company entered into a $125.0 million accelerated share repurchase ("2022 ASR") and received 1.48 million shares of the Company common stock at inception of the 2022 ASR, which represented approximately 80% of the expected total shares under the 2022 ASR. On March 24, 2022, the early exercise provision was exercised by 2022 ASR counterparty. Upon settlement on March 24, 2022, the Company received an additional 0.46 million shares determined using the volume-weighted average price of the Company's common stock during the term of the 2022 ASR.
On April 26, 2022, the Board of Directors authorized the Company to repurchase up to $225.0 million of the Company’s common stock. The program allows the Company to repurchase its shares opportunistically from time to time. The repurchase authorization expires in December 2024. This stock repurchase authorization replaces the previous $225 million stock repurchase authorization, of which $100 million remained authorized at the time of its replacement, and which was otherwise set to expire on December 31, 2022. Purchases may be affected through one or more open market transactions, privately negotiated transactions, transactions structured through investment banking institutions, or a combination of the foregoing.
On January 26, 2023, the Company entered into a $150 million accelerated share repurchase agreement ("2023 ASR") and received 2.1 million shares of the Company common stock at inception of the 2023 ASR, which represented approximately 80% of the expected total shares of under the 2023 SAR. The remaining repurchase transactions are expected to be completed in the first half of 2023.
For the year ended December 31, 2021, there were no repurchases of the Company’s common stock as part of the shar e repurchase authorization.
See Note 8, Treasury Stock, to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for further details.
Dividend Policy
We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock since our formation. Our Senior Credit Facility limits the amount of dividends that we may pay. Any future determinations to pay cash dividends on our common stock will be at the discretion of the Board and will depend upon our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and other factors deemed relevant by the Board.
Capital Resources
We believe that our cash and available borrowings under the Senior Credit Facility are sufficient to finance our operations and capital expenditures over the next twelve months. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including the growth of our business, the timing and introduction of new products and investments, strategic plans and acquisitions, among others. Additional sources of liquidity available to us include short term borrowings and the issuance of long term debt and equity securities.
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Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We do not have any off–balance sheet financing arrangements during the year-ended December 31, 2022 that have or are reasonably likely to have, a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources that are material to our interests.
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
We will continue to have cash requirements to support seasonal working capital needs and capital expenditures, to pay interest, to service debt, and to fund acquisitions. As part of our ongoing operations, we enter into contractual arrangements that obligate us to make future cash payments.
Our primary obligations include principal and interest payments on revolving portion and Term Loan component of the Senior Credit Facility, Securitization Facility and Convertible Securities. See Note 5, Debt, to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for details. The Company also leases some of our manufacturing facilities and office buildings which have future minimum lease payments associated. See Note 11, Leases and Related Party Leases, to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for a schedule of our future minimum lease payments. Amounts related to the Company's other obligations, including employment agreements and purchase obligations were not material.
The Company has contingent consideration obligations related to prior and current year acquisitions and future pension contribution obligations. See Note 10, Retirement Benefit Plans, and Note 15, Commitments and Contingencies to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for details. The associated obligations are not fixed. The Company also has a liability for uncertain tax benefits including interest and penalties. See Note 12, Income Taxes to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for details. The Company cannot make a reliable estimate of the period in which the uncertain tax benefits may be realized.
Employee Termination Benefits
The Company incurred employee termination costs on restructuring activities associated with a closure of a manufacturing facility located in France, outsourcing plans for select transactional back office activities, and executive reorganization in the consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022. In 2021, the Company incurred employee termination costs on restructuring activities associated with the closure of the manufacturing facility in France. Restructuring costs were included in accrued expenses and other current liabilities in the consolidated balance sheet for the year ended December 31, 2022 and 2021. See Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for further details.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND THE USE OF ESTIMATES
Our discussion and analysis of financial conditions and results of operations is based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP"). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent liabilities, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses. Significant estimates affecting amounts reported or disclosed in the consolidated financial statements include allowances for doubtful accounts receivable and sales returns and allowances, net realizable value of inventories, valuation of intangible assets including amortization periods for acquired intangible assets, discount rates and estimated projected cash flows used to value and test impairments of long-lived assets and goodwill, estimates of projected cash flows and depreciation and amortization periods for long-lived assets, computation of taxes, valuation allowances recorded against deferred tax assets, the valuation of stock-based compensation, valuation of derivative instruments, valuation of contingent liabilities, the fair value of debt instruments and loss contingencies. These estimates are based on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the current circumstances.
As we continue to navigate the COVID-19 pandemic and recent variants of the virus, as well as the adverse impacts to global economic conditions, supply chain and our operations, there may be impact to future estimates including, but not limited to, inventory valuations, fair value measurements, goodwill and long-lived asset impairments, the effectiveness of the Company’s hedging instruments, deferred tax valuation allowances, and allowances for doubtful accounts receivable.
We believe that the following accounting policies, which form the basis for developing these estimates, are those that are most critical to the presentation of our consolidated financial statements and require the more difficult subjective and complex judgments, often because of the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. Because of this uncertainty, actual results could differ from these estimates.
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Inventories
Inventories, consisting of purchased materials, direct labor and manufacturing overhead, are stated at the lower of cost (determined by the first-in, first-out method) or net realizable value. At each balance sheet date, we evaluate ending inventories for excess quantities, obsolescence or shelf-life expiration. Our evaluation includes an analysis of historical sales levels by product, projections of future demand by product, the risk of technological or competitive obsolescence for our products, general market conditions, a review of the shelf-life expiration dates for our products, and the feasibility of reworking or using excess or obsolete products or components in the production or assembly of other products that are not obsolete or for which we do not have excess quantities in inventory. To the extent that we determine there are excess or obsolete quantities or quantities with a shelf life that is too near its expiration for us to reasonably expect that we can sell those products prior to their expiration, we adjust their carrying value to estimated net realizable value. If future demand or market conditions are lower than our projections, or if we are unable to rework excess or obsolete quantities into other products, we may record further adjustments to the carrying value of inventory through a charge to cost of product revenues in the period the revision is made. As of December 31, 2022, our reserve for inventory obsolesce is 6% of total inventory on our consolidated balance sheets.
The Company capitalizes inventory costs associated with certain products prior to regulatory approval, based on management's judgment of probable economic benefit. The Company could be required to expense previously capitalized costs related to pre-approval inventory upon a change in such judgment, due to, among other potential factors, a denial or delay of approval by necessary regulatory bodies or a decision by management to discontinue the related development program.
Acquisitions
Results of operations of acquired companies are included in the Company’s results of operations as of the respective acquisition dates. The Company accounts for the acquisition of a business in accordance with ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations ("ASC Topic 805"). Amounts paid to acquire a business are allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on the fair values at the date of acquisition. Any excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the net assets acquired in recorded as goodwill. Transaction costs and costs to restructure the acquired company are expensed as incurred.
Contingent consideration is recorded at fair value as measured on the date of acquisition. The value recorded is based on estimates of future financial projections under various potential scenarios using either a Monte Carlo simulation or the probability-weighted income approach derived from revenue estimates and probability assessment with respect to the likelihood of achieving contingent obligations. Contingent payments related to acquisitions consist of development, regulatory, and commercial milestone payments, in addition to sales-based payments, and are valued using discounted cash flow techniques. Each quarter until such contingent amounts are earned, the fair value of the liability is remeasured at each reporting period and adjusted as a component of operating expenses based on changes to the underlying assumptions. The change in the fair value of sales-based payments is based upon future revenue estimates and increases or decreases as revenue estimates or expectation of timing of payment charges. The estimates used to determine the fair value of the contingent consideration liability are subject to significant judgment and actual results are likely to differ from the amounts originally recorded.
The Company determines the fair value of acquired intangible assets based on detailed valuations that use certain information and assumptions provided by management. The Company allocates any excess purchase price over the fair value of the net tangible and intangible assets acquired to goodwill. Determining the fair value of these intangible assets, acquired as part of a business combination requires the Company to make significant estimates. These estimates include the amount and timing of projected future cash flows, the discount rate used to discount those cash flows to present value, the assessment of the asset’s life cycle, and the consideration of legal, technical, regulatory, economic, and competitive risks. The fair value assigned to other intangible assets is determined by estimating the future cash flows of each project or technology and discounting the net cash flows back to their present values. The discount rate used is determined at the time of measurement in accordance with accepted valuation methodologies.
In our most recent acquisition of SIA, the key areas of judgement relating to the valuation of the acquired definite-lived developed technology intangible assets were the net revenue growth rates, cost of sales, selling and marketing costs, discounts rates, and asset useful life. The key areas of judgement relating to the valuation of the contingent consideration are the inputs to the Monte-Carlo model including revenue-adjusted discount rate, counterpart discount rate, revenue volatility and forecasted revenue, earnings before income taxes and fixed costs. These assumptions were developed with the assistance of a third-party valuation expert.
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Acquired IPR&D is recognized at fair value and initially characterized as an indefinite-lived intangible asset, irrespective of whether the acquired IPR&D has an alternative future use. The Company uses the income approach to determine the fair value of developed technology and IPR&D acquired in a business combination. This approach determines fair value by estimating the after-tax cash flows attributable to the respective asset over its useful life and then discounting these after-tax cash flows back to a present value. Some of the more significant assumptions inherent in the development of those asset valuations include the estimated net cash flows for each year for each product including net revenues, cost of sales, R&D costs, selling and marketing costs, the appropriate discount rate to select in order to measure the risk inherent in each future cash flow stream, the assessment of each asset’s life cycle, and competitive trends impacting the asset and each cash flow stream. The Company also uses the income approach, as described above, to determine the estimated fair value of certain other identifiable intangible assets including customer relationships, trade names and business licenses. Customer relationships represent established relationships with customers, which provide a ready channel for the sale of additional products and services. Trade names represent acquired company and product names.
IPR&D acquired in a business combination is capitalized as an indefinite-lived intangible asset. Development costs incurred after the acquisition are expensed as incurred. Upon receipt of regulatory approval, the indefinite-lived intangible asset is then accounted for as a finite-lived intangible asset and amortized on a straight-line basis or accelerated basis, as appropriate, over its estimated useful life. If the research and development project is subsequently abandoned, the indefinite-lived intangible asset is charged to expense. IPR&D acquired outside of a business combination is expensed immediately.
Due to the uncertainty associated with research and development projects, there is risk that actual results will differ materially from the original cash flow projections and that the research and development project will result in a successful commercial product. The risks associated with achieving commercialization include, but are not limited to, delay or failure to obtain regulatory approvals to conduct clinical trials, delay or failure to obtain required market clearances, delays or issues with patent issuance, or validity and litigation.
If the acquired net assets do not constitute a business under the acquisition method of accounting, the transaction is accounted for as an asset acquisition and no goodwill is recognized. In an asset acquisition, the amount allocated to acquired IPR&D with no alternative future use is charged to expense at the acquisition date. Payments that would be recognized as contingent consideration in a business combination are expensed when probable in an asset acquisition. Refer to Note 4, Acquisitions and Divestitures to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for details.
Valuation of Goodwill
The excess of the cost over the fair value of net assets of acquired businesses is recorded as goodwill. Goodwill is not subject to amortization but is reviewed for impairment at the reporting unit level annually, or more frequently if impairment indicators arise. The Company's assessment of the recoverability of goodwill is based upon a comparison of the carrying value of goodwill with its estimated fair value. Key assumptions used to estimate the fair value of goodwill include the Company's discounts rate and forecasted operating results. The Company had goodwill on the balance sheet of $1 billion as of December 31, 2022. The Company reviews goodwill for impairment in the third quarter every year in accordance with ASC Topic 350, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other ("ASC Topic 350"), and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of goodwill may not be recoverable. Refer to Note 7, Goodwill and Other Intangibles, to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for more information.
Valuation of Identifiable Intangible Assets
The Company tests intangible assets with indefinite lives for impairment annually in the third quarter in accordance with ASC Topic 350. Additionally, the Company may perform interim tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that could potentially reduce the fair value of a indefinite lived intangible asset below its carrying amount. The Company tests for impairment by either performing a qualitative evaluation or a quantitative test. The qualitative evaluation is an assessment of factors, including specific operating results as well as industry, market and general economic conditions, to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair values of the intangible asset is less than its carrying amount. The Company may elect to bypass this qualitative evaluation and perform a quantitative test. There were no changes to identifiable intangible assets as a result of the Company's assessments.
Product rights and other definite-lived intangible assets are tested periodically for impairment in accordance with ASC Topic 360, Property, Plant and Equipment, ("ASC Topic 360") when events or changes in circumstances indicate that an asset's carrying value may not be recoverable. The impairment test involves comparing the carrying amount of the asset or asset group to the forecasted undiscounted future cash flows. In the event the carrying value of the asset exceeds the undiscounted future cash flows, the carrying value is considered not recoverable and impairment exists. An impairment loss is measured as the excess of the asset's carrying value over its fair value, calculated using discounted future cash flows. The computed impairment loss is recognized in the period that the impairment occurs.
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As of December 31, 2022, the Company has $1.1 billion of identifiable intangible assets, net on the balance sheets.
Income Taxes
Since we conduct operations on a global basis, our effective tax rate has and will depend upon the geographic distribution of our pre-tax earnings among locations with varying tax rates. Changes in the tax rates of the various jurisdictions in which we operate affect our profits. In addition, we maintain a reserve for uncertain tax benefits, changes to which could impact our effective tax rate in the period such changes are made. The effective tax rate can also be impacted by changes in valuation allowances of deferred tax assets, and tax law changes.
Our provision for income taxes may change period-to-period based on specific events, such as the settlement of income tax audits and changes in tax laws, as well as general factors, including the geographic mix of income before taxes, state and local taxes and the effects of the Company's global income tax strategies. We maintain strategic management and operational activities in overseas subsidiaries. See Note 12, Income Taxes, to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K), in our consolidated financial statements for disclosures related to foreign and domestic pretax income, foreign and domestic income tax expense (benefit) and the effect foreign taxes have on our overall effective tax rate.
We recognize a tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination based on the technical merits of the position. The amount of the accrual for which an exposure exists is measured by determining the amount that has a greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement of the position. Components of the reserve are classified as a long-term liability in the consolidated balance sheets. We record interest and penalties accrued in relation to uncertain tax benefits as a component of income tax expense.
We believe that we have identified all reasonably identifiable exposures and that the reserve we have established for identifiable exposures is appropriate under the circumstances; however, it is possible that additional exposures exist and that exposures will be settled at amounts different from the amounts reserved. It is also possible that changes in facts and circumstances could cause us to either materially increase or reduce the carrying amount of our tax reserves.
Our deferred income taxes reflect the net tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and their basis for income tax purposes, and the temporary differences created by the tax effects of capital loss, net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. We record valuation allowances when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. We could recognize no benefit from our deferred tax assets or we could recognize some or all of the future benefit depending on the amount and timing of taxable income we generate in the future.
We intend to indefinitely reinvest substantially all of our foreign earnings in our foreign subsidiaries unless there is a tax–free manner under which to remit the earnings. The current analysis indicates that we have sufficient U.S. liquidity, including borrowing capacity, to fund foreseeable U.S. cash needs without requiring the repatriation of foreign cash. One time or unusual items that may impact our ability or intent to keep the foreign earnings and cash indefinitely reinvested include significant U.S. acquisitions, loans from a foreign subsidiary, and changes in tax laws.
As of December 31, 2022, the Company has not provided deferred income taxes on unrepatriated earnings from foreign subsidiaries as they are deemed to be indefinitely reinvested unless there is a manner under which to remit the earnings with no material tax cost. Such taxes would primarily be attributable to foreign withholding taxes and local income taxes when such earnings are distributed.
Recently Issued and Adopted Accounting Standards
Refer to Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K), to the consolidated financial statements for recently adopted accounting pronouncements.
ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We are exposed to various market risks, including changes in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates that could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. To manage the volatility relating to these typical business exposures, we may enter into various derivative transactions when appropriate. We do not hold or issue derivative instruments for trading or other speculative purposes.
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Foreign Currency Exchange and Other Rate Risks
We operate on a global basis and are exposed to the risk that changes in foreign currency exchange rates could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. We are primarily exposed to foreign currency exchange rate risk with respect to transactions and net assets denominated in Euros, British pounds, Swiss francs, Canadian dollars, Japanese yen, Mexican pesos, Brazilian reais, Australian dollars and Chinese yuan. We manage the foreign currency exposure centrally, on a combined basis, which allows us to net exposures and to take advantage of any natural offsets. To mitigate the impact of currency fluctuations on transactions denominated in nonfunctional currencies, we periodically enter into derivative financial instruments in the form of foreign currency exchange forward contracts with major financial institutions. We temporarily record realized and unrealized gains and losses on these contracts that qualify as cash flow hedges in other comprehensive income, and then recognize them in other income or expense when the hedged item affects net earnings.
From time to time, we enter into foreign currency forward exchange contracts to manage currency exposures for transactions denominated in a currency other than an entity’s functional currency. As a result, the impact of foreign currency gains/losses recognized in earnings are partially offset by gains/losses on the related foreign currency forward exchange contracts in the same reporting period. Refer to Note 6, Derivative Instruments, to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Part IV, Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K) for additional information.
We maintain written policies and procedures governing our risk management activities. With respect to derivatives, changes in hedged items are generally expected to be completely offset by changes in the fair value of hedge instruments. Consequently, foreign currency exchange contracts would not subject us to material risk due to exchange rate movements, because gains and losses on these contracts offset gains and losses on the assets, liabilities or transactions being hedged.
The results of operations discussed herein have not been materially affected by inflation.
Interest Rate Risk
Cash and Cash Equivalents - We are exposed to the risk of interest rate fluctuations on the interest income earned on our cash and cash equivalents. A hypothetical 100 basis points movement in interest rates applicable to our cash and cash equivalents outstanding at December 31, 2022 would increase interest income by approximately $5.1 million on an annual basis. No significant decrease in interest income would be expected as our cash balances are earning interest at rates of approximately one basis points. We are subject to foreign currency exchange risk with respect to cash balances maintained in foreign currencies.
Debt - Our interest rate risk relates primarily to U.S. dollar LIBOR-indexed borrowings. We use interest rate swap derivative instruments to manage our earnings and cash flow exposure to changes in interest rates. These interest rate swaps fix the interest rate on a portion of our expected LIBOR-indexed floating-rate borrowings. The Company held the following interest rate swaps as of December 31, 2022 (dollar amounts in thousands):
Hedged ItemNotional AmountDesignation DateEffective DateTermination DateFixed Interest RateEstimated Fair Value
Assets (Liabilities)
1-month USD LIBOR Loan150,000 December 13, 2017July 1, 2019June 30, 20242.423 %5,012 
1-month USD LIBOR Loan200,000 December 13, 2017January 1, 2018December 31, 20242.313 %8,380 
1-month USD LIBOR Loan75,000 October 10, 2018July 1, 2020June 30, 20253.220 %1,831 
1-month USD LIBOR Loan75,000 October 10, 2018July 1, 2020June 30, 20253.199 %1,905 
1-month USD LIBOR Loan75,000 October 10, 2018July 1, 2020June 30, 20253.209 %1,970 
1-month USD LIBOR Loan100,000 December 18, 2018December 30, 2022December 31, 20272.885 %4,252 
1-month USD LIBOR Loan100,000 December 18, 2018December 30, 2022December 31, 20272.867 %4,153 
1-month USD LIBOR Loan575,000 December 15, 2020July 31, 2025December 31, 20271.415 %23,742 
1-month USD LIBOR Loan125,000 December 15, 2020July 1, 2025December 31, 20271.404 %5,467 
$1,475,000 $56,712 
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These interest rate swaps were designated as cash flow hedges as of December 31, 2022. The total notional amounts related to the Company’s interest rate swaps were $1.5 billion and with $775.0 million effective as of December 31, 2022. Based on our outstanding borrowings at December 31, 2022, a 100 basis points change in interest rates would have impacted interest expense on the unhedged portion of the debt by $1.1 million on an annualized basis.
ITEM 8.FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Financial statements and the financial statement schedule specified by this Item, together with the report thereon of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, are presented following Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedule of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 9.CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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ITEM 9A.CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
We maintain disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed in our Exchange Act reports is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Securities and Exchange Commission’s rules and forms and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, as appropriate, to allow for timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Disclosure controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives, and management is required to apply its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Management has designed our disclosure controls and procedures to provide reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives.
As required by Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(b), we have carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of December 31, 2022. Based upon this evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of December 31, 2022 to provide such reasonable assurance.
Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Internal control over financial reporting is designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”). We recognize that because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions or that the degree of compliance with the policies and procedures may deteriorate.
To evaluate the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, management used the criteria described in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”). Based upon this evaluation, management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2022.
The effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022 has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which appears herein.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act) that occurred during the quarter ended December 31, 2022 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
ITEM 9B.OTHER INFORMATION
The following disclosure is intended to satisfy any obligation to provide disclosures pursuant to Item 5.03 of Form 8-K.
Effective as of February 21, 2023, based on the recommendation of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee of the Board of Directors (the “Board”) of Integra LifeSciences Holdings Corporation (the “Company”), in connection with the new Securities and Exchange Commission rules and changes to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), regarding universal proxy cards, certain recent changes to the Delaware General Corporation Law (the "DGCL"), and a periodic review of corporate governance matters, the Board approved amendments to the Company’s Second Amended and Restated Bylaws, as amended (the “Third A&R Bylaws”).
The Third A&R Bylaws, among other things:
Address matters relating to Rule 14a-19 under the Exchange Act (the "Universal Proxy Rules"), including requiring: (a) the stockholder’s nomination notice to include a representation that it intends to solicit proxies from stockholders representing at least 67% of the voting power of shares entitled to vote on the election of directors; (b) the stockholder to comply with the Universal Proxy Rules and provide reasonable evidence thereof prior to the stockholder meeting; and (c) the stockholder to use a proxy card color other than white, which is reserved for the exclusive use of the Board. (Article 2, Sections 2.03, 2.08, and 2.10)
Enhance the informational and procedural requirements in connection with stockholder proposals and stockholder director nominations, including: (a) requiring additional information about the stockholder making the director
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nomination or proposal; (b) requiring additional information about the stockholder proposed business and/or director nominee; and (c) providing that the number of nominees a stockholder may nominate for election at the annual meeting of the stockholders may not exceed the number of directors to be elected at such annual meeting. (Article 2, Sections 2.03 and 2.10)
Modify the provisions relating to adjournment procedures, availability of lists of stockholders entitled to vote at stockholder meetings, and electronic notices, in each case, to reflect amendments to the DGCL. (Article 2, Sections 2.04 and 2.05; Article 4, Section 4.01)
Provide that any proxies received for disqualified or withdrawn Board nominees will be treated as abstentions. (Article 2, Section 2.08)
Add a provision for stockholder actions by written consent that requires the Company to engage an independent inspector of election to perform a review of the validity of the applicable consents and revocations. (Article 2, Section 2.09)
Clarify the powers of the chair of a stockholder meeting, including with respect to the chair’s ability to prescribe rules and regulations for the conduct of the meeting. (Article 2, Section 2.11)
Add a federal forum provision to designate the federal district courts as the exclusive forum for matters arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Exchange Act. (Article 8, Section 8.02)
Make various other updates, including ministerial and conforming changes and changes to clarify the Company’s ability to conduct business by means of remote communication.
The foregoing description of the Third A&R Bylaws is qualified in its entirety by the full text of the Third A&R Bylaws filed as Exhibit 3.3 hereto and incorporated herein by reference.

ITEM 9C.DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS
Not applicable.
PART III
INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
The information called for by Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities relating to equity compensation plans, Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance, Item 11. Executive Compensation, Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters, Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence and Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services is incorporated herein by reference to the Company’s definitive proxy statement for its Annual Meeting of Stockholders scheduled to be held on May 12, 2023, which definitive proxy statement is expected to be filed with the Commission not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.





PART IV
ITEM 15.EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULE
(a) Documents filed as a part of this report:
1. Financial Statements.
The following financial statements and financial statement schedules are filed as a part of this report:
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All other schedules not listed above have been omitted, because they are not applicable or are not required, or because the required information is included in the consolidated financial statements or notes thereto.
3. Exhibits required to be filed by Item 601 of Regulation S-K.
2.1(a)
2.1(b)
3.1(a)
3.1(b)
3.1(c)
3.1(d)
3.2
3.3
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
10.1(a)
10.1(b)
10.2(a)
10.2(b)
10.3(a)
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10.3(b)
10.3(c)
10.3(d)
10.3(e)
10.3(f)
10.3(g)
10.3(h)
10.3(i)
10.3(j)
10.3(k)
10.3(l)
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11(a)
10.11(b)
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10.12
10.13(a)
10.13(b)
10.13(c)
10.13(d)
10.14
10.15(a)
10.15(b)
Amendment, dated July 14, 2020, to that Sixth Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, among Integra LifeSciences Holdings Corporation, a syndicate of lending banks, Bank of America, N.A., as Administrative Agent, Swing Line Lender and L/C Issuer, Citibank N.A., Morgan Stanley MUFG Loan Partners, LLC and Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. as Co-Syndication Agents, and PNC Bank, N.A., Bank of Nova Scotia, Bank of the West, BBVA USA, Capital One, National Association, Citizens Bank, N.A., DNB Capital LLC, Santander Bank, N.A., T.D. Bank, N.A. and Truist Bank, as Co-Documentation Agents (as amended, restated, modified and supplemented from time to time prior to the date hereof, the “Credit Agreement”) (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 20, 2020).
10.16
10.17
10.18
10.19
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10.20
10.21
10.22
10.23
10.24
10.25
10.27
10.28
10.29
10.30
10.31
10.32